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Help writing a thesis on islam in west africa

Help Writing A Thesis On Islam In West Africa

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Ccot essay islam west africa

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Swerving Subjects

How make you account for the spread of Islam to Africa in the context of cultural interaction and exchange? . To account for the spread of Islam into Africa, particularly West Africa, in the context of cultural interaction and exchange, four things must be considered. First would be the trade routes around the Sahara Desert which provided a huge sum of wealth and power for the African male monarchs. Second, see the disposal that Islam provided another beginning of power for the African male monarchs with its Madrasas or universities and the Qadis or magistrates. Third, see the warfare between the Islamic Bedouin tribes that invaded into lands such as Ghana and finally brought Islam into the state. Finally, 4th, see the rigorous moral codification of the Koran that finally brought monotheism to a polytheistic Africa. These four factors must be considered when accounting for the spread of Islam into West Africa into the lands of first Gao, so Ghana, and eventually into Mali. But first, allow 's put down the foundation for Islam with its conceiver, Muhammad. Muhammad ibn Abdullah, Islam 's laminitis, was born in the late sixth century C.E. in Mecca. Mecca, by historical histories, was a hub of cultural interaction and exchange in itself. Merchants from all over traveled the trade routes that went through Mecca on its manner to the Far East. Mecca at that clip was a mercantile capital and was full of all sorts of enticements known to adult male. Muhammad was to a great extent influenced by the Christian, Jewish, and Bedouin heathens of Mecca in that he tried to larn about each of the faiths. Muhammad was troubled by the corruptness and moral decay of Mecca and the unfairnesss to the weak and hapless. About the twelvemonth 610 C.E. , Muhammad was visited by the Archangel Gabriel in a vision when he received a warning about all of the immorality in Mecca. Gabriel taught Muhammad that there was merely one God, Allah and that a judgement twenty-four hours would shortly be upon the people of Mecca.

4. Islamic Empire

After the autumn of the Western Roman Empire, power was relinquished to many different fastnesss throughout Europe, the Middle East and Africa.. After 661, under the Umayyad calif, Islam dominated one tierce of the Old World and at its tallness it reached from the Atlantic Ocean on the west, across North Africa and the Middle East, to cardinal Asia on the East.. For the Islamic universe trade was of paramount importance, and commercial contact was established with the Vikings and the peoples of China, South-East Asia, India, East Africa, and sub-Saharan West Africa.. Islamic merchandiser maste.

Impact of Islam on West Africa

When Muslims brought Islam into West Africa from across the Sahara, Africans were attracted to it because it helped them through a clip where their swayers were altering. Rulers were highly attracted to the Islamic thought of province and faith being united under one swayer because they thought it would help reenforce their authorization. Besides, many lower people converted to Islam because of its classless beliefs. The fact that all people were viewed as peers appealed to them, for they so would be equal to the people that looked down upon them. In many ways, Islam changed the positions of the people in West Africa.

In planetary context, Islam made an of import connexion with other parts of the universe through trade. West Africa had many points where Muslims established trading centres that traded with Asia and Europe. Trade spread Islamic thoughts to other parts of the universe, presenting new parts and imperiums to classless and monotheistic beliefs. These beliefs helped other parts in the universe trade with war, suppressing of their land, and improper revenue enhancement that was portion of the people’s day-to-day lives. Without set uping trade paths, Islam could non hold impacted other parts of the universe every bit much as it had in such a short clip.

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If you are replying the first of these inquiries, the reply is obvious. Terrorism has come to be associated with Islam because Muslims have committed many terrorist Acts of the Apostless in the last 40 old ages or so. The most of import of these have, of class, been the assorted onslaughts by Al-Qaeda. But there was besides the Palestinian onslaught on the Israeli Olympic squad at the Munich Olympics in 1972. If this is what you are inquiring about, my thesis statement would be `` Terrorism has come to be associated with Islam because the most high-profile terrorist Acts of the Apostless of the last few decennaries have been committed by Muslims.

The Spread of Islam in West Africa: Containment, Mixing, and Reform from the Eighth to the Twentieth Century

While the presence of Islam in West Africa dates back to 8th century, the spread of the religion in parts that are now the modern provinces of Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali and Nigeria, was in actuality, a gradual and complex procedure. Much of what we know about the early history of West Africa comes from mediaeval histories written by Arab and North African geographers and historiographers. Specialists have used several theoretical accounts to explicate why Africans converted to Islam. Some emphasize economic motives, others highlight the draw of Islam’s religious message, and a figure emphasis the prestigiousness and influence of Arabic literacy in easing province edifice. While the motives of early transitions remain ill-defined, it is evident that the early presence of Islam in West Africa was linked to merchandise and commerce with North Africa. Trade between West Africa and the Mediterranean predated Islam, nevertheless, North African Muslims intensified the Trans-Saharan trade. North African bargainers were major histrions in presenting Islam into West Africa. Several major trade paths connected Africa below the Sahara with the Mediterranean Middle East, such as Sijilmasa to Awdaghust and Ghadames to Gao. The Sahel, the ecological passage zone between the Sahara desert and forest zone, which spans the African continent, was an intense point of contact between North Africa and communities South of the Sahara. In West Africa, the three great mediaeval imperiums of Ghana, Mali, and the Songhay developed in Sahel.

The history of Islam in West Africa can be explained in three phases, containment, commixture, and reform. In the first phase, African male monarchs contained Muslim influence by segregating Muslim communities, in the 2nd phase African swayers blended Islam with local traditions as the population selectively appropriated Islamic patterns, and eventually in the 3rd phase, African Muslims pressed for reforms in an attempt to free their societies of assorted patterns and implement Shariah. This three-phase model helps sheds visible radiation on the historical development of the mediaeval imperiums of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay and the nineteenth century jehads that led to the constitution of the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland and the Umarian province in Senegambia.

Containment: Ghana and the Takrur

The early presence of Islam was limited to segregated Muslim communities linked to the trans-Saharan trade. In the eleventh century Andalusian geographer, Al-Bakri, reported histories of Arab and North African Berber colonies in the part. Several factors led to the growing of the Muslim merchant-scholar category in non-Muslim lands. Islam facilitated long distance trade by offering utile sets of tools for merchandisers including contract jurisprudence, recognition, and information webs. Muslim merchant-scholars besides played an of import function in non-Muslim lands as advisers and Scribes in Ghana. They had the important accomplishment of written book, which helped in the disposal of lands. Many Muslim were besides spiritual specializers whose talismans were prized by non-Muslims.Merchant-scholars besides played a big function in the spread of Islam into the forest zones. These included the Jakhanke merchant-scholars in, the Jula merchandisers in Mali and the Ivory Coast, and the Hausa merchandisers during the 19th century in Nigeria, Ghana, and Guinea Basau, ] . Muslim communities in the wood zones were minority communities frequently linked to trading diasporas. Many of the traditions in the wood zones still reflect the tradition of Al-Hajj Salim Suwari, a late fifteenth-century Soninke bookman, who focused on duties of Muslims in a non-Muslim society. His tradition, known as the Suwarian tradition, discouraged proselytizing, believing that God would convey people around to Islam in his ain ways. This tradition worked for centuries in the forest zone including the present twenty-four hours, where there are vivacious Muslim minority communities. Although modern Ghana is unrelated to the ancient land of Ghana, modern Ghana chose the name as a manner of honouring early African history. The boundaries of the ancient Kingdom encompassed the Middle Niger Delta part, which consists of contemporary Mali and parts of contemporary Mauritania and Senegal. This part has historically been place to the Soninken Malinke, Wa’kuri and Wangari peoples. Fulanis and the Southern Saharan Sanhaja Berbers besides played a outstanding function in the spread of Islam in the Niger Delta part. Large towns emerged in the Niger Delta part about 300 A.D. Around the 8th century, Arab paperss mentioned ancient Ghana and that Muslims crossed the Sahara into West Africa for trade. North African and Saharan merchandisers traded salt, Equus caballuss, day of the months, and camels from the North with gold, lumber, and grocery from parts Souths of the Sahara. Ghana male monarchs, nevertheless, did non allow North African and Saharan merchandisers to remain overnight in the metropolis. This gave rise to one of the major characteristics of Ghana—the double metropolis ; Ghana Kings benefited from Muslim bargainers, but kept them outside centres of power. From the eighth to the 13th century, contact between Muslims and Africans increased and Muslim provinces began to emerge in the Sahel. Finally, African male monarchs began to let Muslims to incorporate. Histories during the 11th century reported a Muslim province called Takrur in the in-between Senegal vale. Around this clip, the Almoravid reform motion began in Western Sahara and expanded throughout modern Mauritania, North Africa and Southern Spain. The Almoravids imposed a fundamentalist version of Islam, in an effort to sublimate beliefs and patterns from syncretic or dissident beliefs. The Almoravid motion imposed greater uniformity of pattern and Islamic jurisprudence among West African Muslims. The Almoravids captured trade paths and stations, taking to the weakening of the Takruri province. Over the following hundred old ages, the imperium dissolved into a figure of little lands.

Mix: The Empires of Mali and Songhay

Over the following few decennaries, African swayers began to follow Islam while governing over populations with diverse religions and civilizations. Many of these swayers blended Islam with traditional and local patterns in what experts call the commixture stage. Over clip, the population began to follow Islam, frequently selectively allowing facets of the religion. The Mali Empire ( 1215-1450 ) rose out of the region’s feuding lands. At its tallness, the imperium of Mali composed most of modern Mali, Senegal, parts of Mauritania and Guinea. It was a multiethnic province with assorted spiritual and cultural groups. Muslims played a outstanding function in the tribunal as counsellors and advisers. While the empire’s laminitis, Sunjiata Keita, was non himself a Muslim, by 1300 Mali male monarchs became Muslim. The most celebrated of them was Mansa Musa ( 1307-32 ) . He made Islam the province faith and in 1324 went on pilgrim's journey from Mali to Mecca. Musa’s pilgrim's journey to Mecca showed up in European records because of his show of wealth and munificent disbursement. Apparently, his disbursement devalued the monetary value of gold in Egypt for several old ages. The celebrated fourteenth century traveller Ibn Battuta visited Mali shortly after Mansa Musa’s decease. By the 15th century, nevertheless, Mali dissolved mostly due to internal dissent and struggles with the Saharan Tuareg. Several Muslim civil orders developed farther E, including the Hausa city states and the Kingdom of Kanem in modern Northern Nigeria. Hausaland was comprised of a system of city states ( Gobir, Katsina, Kano, Zamfara, Kebbi and Zazzau ) . The Kingdom of Kanem near Lake Chad flourished as a commercial centre from the 9th to fourteenth century. The province became Muslim during the 9th century. Its replacement province was Bornu. Modern twenty-four hours Northern Nigeria comprises much of Hausaland and Bornu in the E. By the fourteenth century all governing elites of Hausaland were Muslim, although the bulk of the population did non change over until the eighteenth century jehads. Much like the swayers of earlier Muslims provinces, the swayers of Hausaland blended local patterns and Islam. Emerging from the ruins of the Mali Empire, the Mande Songhay Empire ( 1430s to 1591 ) ruled over a diverse and multiethnic imperium. Although Islam was the province faith, the bulk of the population still practiced their traditional belief systems. Many swayers, nevertheless, combined local patterns with Islam. Sonni Ali, the swayer from 1465-1492, persecuted Muslim bookmans, peculiarly those who criticized heathen patterns. During the thirteenth century, Mansa Musa conquered the Kingdom of Gao. Two centuries subsequently, the land of Gao rose once more as the Songhay Empire. Sonni Ali captured much of the Empire of Mali. Under 1493-1529 ) , the Songhay’s boundary lines extended far beyond any old West African imperium. The Songhay province patronized Islamic establishments and sponsored public edifices, mosques and libraries. One noteworthy illustration is the Great Mosque of Jenne, which was built in the 12th or thirteenth century. The Great Mosque of Jenne remains the largest earthen edifice in the universe. By the sixteenth century there were several centres of trade and Islamic acquisition in the Niger Bend part, most notably the celebrated Timbuktu. Arab chroniclers tell us that the pastoral mobile Tuareg founded Timbuktu as a trading outstation. The city’s multicultural population, regional trade, and Islamic scholarship fostered a widely distributed environment. In 1325, the city’s population was around 10,000. At its vertex, in the sixteenth century, the population is estimated to hold been between 30,000 and 50,000. Timbuktu attracted bookmans from throughout the Muslim world.The Songhay’s major merchandising spouses were the Merenid dynasty in the Maghrib ( north-west Africa ) and the Mamluks in Egypt. The Songhay Empire ended when Morocco conquered the province in 1591. The autumn of the Songhay marked the diminution of large imperiums in West Africa. Merchant scholars in Timbuktu and other major larning centres dispersed, reassigning larning establishments from urban-based merchandiser households to rural pastoralists throughout the Sahara. During this period there was an confederation between bookmans, who were besides portion of the merchandiser category, and some warriors who provided protection for trade trains. Around the 12th and thirteenth century, mystical Sufi brotherhood orders began to distribute in the part. Sufi orders played an built-in function in the societal order of African Muslim societies and the spread of Islam through the part good into the twentieth century.

Reform in the Nineteenth Century: Umarian Jihad in Senegambia and the Sokoto Caliphate in Hausaland

The nineteenth century jihad motions best exemplify the 3rd stage in the development Islam in West Africa. Specialists have highlighted the ways in which literate Muslims became progressively cognizant of Islamic philosophy and began to demand reforms during this period. This period was important in that it marks a displacement in Muslim communities that practiced Islam assorted with “pagan” rites and patterns to societies that wholly adopted Islamic values and established ShariahScholars have debated the beginnings of the nineteenth century West African jehads. The first known jehad in West Africa was in Mauritania during the seventeenth century. At that clip, Mauritian society was divided along bookman and warrior line of descents. The scholar Nasir al-Din led a failed jehad called Sharr Bubba. Unlike the failed jehad in Mauritania, the nineteenth century jihad motions in Senegambia and Hausaland ( in what is now northern Nigeria ) successfully overthrew the established order and transformed the opinion and landowning class.In 1802, Uthman Dan Fodio, a Fulani bookman, led a major jehad. With the help of a big Fulani horse and Hausa provincials, Uthman Dan Fodio overthrew the region’s Hausa swayers and replaced them with Fulani amirs. The motion led to centralisation of power in the Muslim community, instruction reforms, and transmutations of jurisprudence. Uthman Dan Fodio besides sparked a literary resurgence with a production of spiritual work that included Arabic texts and common written in Arabic book. His inheritor continued the bequest of literary production and instruction reform. Uthman Dan Fodio’s motion inspired a figure of jehads in the part. A noteworthy illustration was the jehad of al Hajj Umar Tal, a Tukulor from the Senegambia part. In the 1850s, Umar Tal returned from pilgrim's journey claiming to hold received religious authorization over the West African Tijani Sufi order. From the 1850s to 1860s, he conquered three Bambara lands. After Tal’s licking by the Gallic at Médine in 1857 and the subsequent licking of his boy in the 1880s, his followings fled westward distributing the influence of the Tijani order in Northern Nigeria. Although the Gallic controlled the part, colonial governments met another formidable enemy. Samori Toure rose up against the Gallic and gathered a 30,000 strong ground forces. Following his decease, Gallic forces defeated Toure’s boy in 1901. The Gallic business of Senegal forced the concluding development of Islamic pattern where leaders of Sufi orders became Alliess with colonial administrators.Although European powers led to the diminution of the Umarian province and the Sokoto Caliphate, colonial regulation did little to halt the spread of Islam in West Africa. The British used anti-slavery rhetoric as they began their conquering of the Sokoto Caliphate in 1897. The Sokoto Caliphate ended in 1903, when British military personnels conquered the province. Colonial governments attempted to keep the established societal order and ruled through Northern Nigerian amir. Despite the attempts of colonial governments, colonialism had far making effects on Northern Nigerian Muslim society. Modern communicating and transit substructure facilitated increased exchange between Muslim communities. As a consequence, Islam began to distribute quickly in new urban centres and parts such as Yoruba land. Similarly in the Gallic Sudan, Islam really spread in rates far greater than the old centuries. Although Muslims lost political power, Muslim communities made rapid inroads in the West Africa during the early twentieth century.

2 Remarks

Impact of Islam in Africa • Rise of Islamic imperiums and lands in Africa. These included the Islamic Caliphate provinces in North Africa and West Africa. • Growth of urbanisation. Arab colonies particularly on the East African seashore grew to go of import urban centres where Arabic civilization and Islam were strongly rooted. • Spread of Arabic linguistic communication and civilization: nutrients, dressing ( ustaarabu ) . Arabic civilization was considered more superior to local African civilization. • Rise of new civilizations and new assorted populations such as the Swahili society at the east African seashore. • Led to a new rational waking up in many parts of Africa. Islamic universities such as Timbuktu, Cairo, Fez in Morocco became of import centres for the airing of cognition in assorted Fieldss such as jurisprudence, history, divinity, uranology, biological scientific disciplines etc. • New architectural designs in the building of edifices such as mosques, roads, houses, memorials ( minarets ) etc. • New techniques in the armed forces ; usage of Equus caballuss and chariots, blades, pointers and heavy weapon. The Muslim ground forcess were formidable and their techniques were copied by the local people. • Spread of agribusiness particularly the debut of new strains of animate beings such as the donkey, mule, caprine animals, cowss etc and harvests from the Middle East such as wheat, rice, spices. The Arabic agriculture calendar was adopted by many people. An Islamic calendar was divided into months of 10 yearss known as muongo. • New developments in engineering and the scientific disciplines such as in medical specialty. The most of import country was in chemistry which became the footing of the subject of Chemistry. • Introduction of dynastic regulation in the lands and imperiums established by the Muslims • Development of an urban civilization • Establishment of a category society. Arab colonists ( such as the Shirazi and Mazrui in East Africa and the Berbers in Morocco ) were at the top and below them were the assorted races and at the underside were the Africans and slaves. • Economic impact. Expansion of regional and international trade. Introduction of new mintage chiefly Cu and Ag coins that replaced barter trade. • However, although the spread of Islam was transformative on African societies, it besides led to the escalation of force and competition for district that did non be before. The escalation of force had negative effects on African societies. Impact of Islam in Africa • Rise of Islamic imperiums and lands in Africa. These included the Islamic Caliphate provinces in North Africa and West Africa. • Growth of urbanisation. Arab colonies particularly on the East African seashore grew to go of import urban centres where Arabic civilization and Islam were strongly rooted. • Spread of Arabic linguistic communication and civilization: nutrients, dressing ( ustaarabu ) . Arabic civilization was considered more superior to local African civilization. • Rise of new civilizations and new assorted populations such as the Swahili society at the east African seashore. • Led to a new rational waking up in many parts of Africa. Islamic universities such as Timbuktu, Cairo, Fez in Morocco became of import centres for the airing of cognition in assorted Fieldss such as jurisprudence, history, divinity, uranology, biological scientific disciplines etc. • New architectural designs in the building of edifices such as mosques, roads, houses, memorials ( minarets ) etc. • New techniques in the armed forces ; usage of Equus caballuss and chariots, blades, pointers and heavy weapon. The Muslim ground forcess were formidable and their techniques were copied by the local people. • Spread of agribusiness particularly the debut of new strains of animate beings such as the donkey, mule, caprine animals, cowss etc and harvests from the Middle East such as wheat, rice, spices. The Arabic agriculture calendar was adopted by many people. An Islamic calendar was divided into months of 10 yearss known as muongo. • New developments in engineering and the scientific disciplines such as in medical specialty. The most of import country was in chemistry which became the footing of the subject of Chemistry. • Introduction of dynastic regulation in the lands and imperiums established by the Muslims • Development of an urban civilization • Establishment of a category society. Arab colonists ( such as the Shirazi and Mazrui in East Africa and the Berbers in Morocco ) were at the top and below them were the assorted races and at the underside were the Africans and slaves. • Economic impact. Expansion of regional and international trade. Introduction of new mintage chiefly Cu and Ag coins that replaced barter trade. • However, although the spread of Islam was transformative on African societies, it besides led to the escalation of force and competition for district that did non be before. The escalation of force had negative effects on African societies.

Impact of Islam in Africa • Rise of Islamic imperiums and lands in Africa. These included the Islamic Caliphate provinces in North Africa and West Africa. • Growth of urbanisation. Arab colonies particularly on the East African seashore grew to go of import urban centres where Arabic civilization and Islam were strongly rooted. • Spread of Arabic linguistic communication and civilization: nutrients, dressing ( ustaarabu ) . Arabic civilization was considered more superior to local African civilization. • Rise of new civilizations and new assorted populations such as the Swahili society at the east African seashore. • Led to a new rational waking up in many parts of Africa. Islamic universities such as Timbuktu, Cairo, Fez in Morocco became of import centres for the airing of cognition in assorted Fieldss such as jurisprudence, history, divinity, uranology, biological scientific disciplines etc. • New architectural designs in the building of edifices such as mosques, roads, houses, memorials ( minarets ) etc. • New techniques in the armed forces ; usage of Equus caballuss and chariots, blades, pointers and heavy weapon. The Muslim ground forcess were formidable and their techniques were copied by the local people. • Spread of agribusiness particularly the debut of new strains of animate beings such as the donkey, mule, caprine animals, cowss etc and harvests from the Middle East such as wheat, rice, spices. The Arabic agriculture calendar was adopted by many people. An Islamic calendar was divided into months of 10 yearss known as muongo. • New developments in engineering and the scientific disciplines such as in medical specialty. The most of import country was in chemistry which became the footing of the subject of Chemistry. • Introduction of dynastic regulation in the lands and imperiums established by the Muslims • Development of an urban civilization • Establishment of a category society. Arab colonists ( such as the Shirazi and Mazrui in East Africa and the Berbers in Morocco ) were at the top and below them were the assorted races and at the underside were the Africans and slaves. • Economic impact. Expansion of regional and international trade. Introduction of new mintage chiefly Cu and Ag coins that replaced barter trade. • However, although the spread of Islam was transformative on African societies, it besides led to the escalation of force and competition for district that did non be before. The escalation of force had negative effects on African societies.

Description: How Islam spread into sub-Saharan part of West Africa, and the great civilisations it established at that place, taking its dwellers out of pagan religion to the worship of One God. Part 1: Muslimism reaches West Africa, and a history of the Islamic Empire of Ghana.

Muslim geographers and historiographers have provided first-class records of Muslim swayers and peoples in Africa. Among them are Al-Khwarzimi, Ibn Munabbah, Al-Masudi, Al-Bakri, Abul Fida, Yaqut, Ibn Batutah, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Fadlallah al-’Umari, Mahmud al-Kati, Ibn al Mukhtar and Abd al-Rahman al-Sa’di. Islam reached the Savannah part in the eighth Century C.E. , the day of the month the written history of West Africa begins. Islam was accepted every bit early as 850 C.E. by the Dya’ogo dynasty of the Kingdom of Tekur. They were the first Negro people who accepted Islam. Trade and commercialism paved the manner for the debut of new elements of material civilization, and made possible the rational development which of course followed the debut and spread of literacy.

Spread of Islam in West Africa

Islam reached the Savannah part in the eighth Century C.E. , the day of the month the written history of West Africa begins The Muslim-Arab historiographers began to compose about West Africa in the early eighth century. The celebrated bookman Ibn Munabbah wrote every bit early as 738 C.E. , followed by Al-Masudi in 947 C.E. As Islam spread in the Savannah part, it was rather natural that commercial links should besides come to be established with North Africa. Trade and commercialism besides paved manner for the debut of new elements of material civilization, and made possible the rational development which of course followed the debut and spread of literacy, and for which parts of the Sudan were to go celebrated in the centuries to come. In the Kingdom of Tekur, situated on both Bankss of the Senegal, Islam was accepted every bit early as 850 C.E. , by the Dya’ogo dynasty. This dynasty was the first Negro people who accepted Islam.

It was for this ground that Muslim-Arab historiographers referred to Bilad al-Tekur as ‘The Land of the Black Muslims.’ War-jabi, boy of Rabis, was the first swayer of Tekur in whose reign Islam was steadfastly established in Tekur and the Islamic Shari’ah system was enforced. This gave a unvarying Muslim jurisprudence to the people. By the clip the Al- Murabitun of Almoravids began their onslaught on Tekur in 1042 C.E. , Islam had made a deep impact on the people of that country. Al-Idrisi in 1511 described the Tekur Country as ‘secure, peaceable and tranquil.’ The capital town of Tekur was besides called Tekur which had become centre of commercialism. Merchants used to convey wool to sell at that place from Greater Morocco and in return, took with them gold and beads.

We have adequate paperss about the history of this part since it was known to the Arab historiographers as the Bilad al-Sudan, the land of the Blacks. In the mediaeval period, the most well-known imperiums that grew there are known until our twenty-four hours: The imperiums of Ghana, Mali, Songhay, and Kanem Bornu. Eminent Arab historiographers have written about the glorifications of these lands, noteworthy among whom are Al-Bakri, Al-Masudi, Ibn Batutah and Ibn Khaldun. Besides these bookmans, there were local bookmans whose plants have come down to us. As for illustration Tarikh al-Sudan, the History of the Sudan, by Al-Sadi and Tarikh al-Fattash by Muhammad al-Kati.

There were celebrated trade paths, like the one from Sijilmasa to Taghaza, Awdaghast, which led to the imperium of Ghana, and another from Sijilmasa to Tuat, Gao and Timbikutu. There were others which connected the present Nigeria with Tripoli via Fez to Bornu and Tunisia with Nigeria via Ghadames, Ghat, and Agades to Hausa land. These paths had made all the above mentioned topographic points celebrated trade centres. These centres of trade invariably became centres of Islamic acquisition and civilisation. New thoughts came through sing bargainers in the field of administrative patterns. We shall analyze briefly the enlargement of Islam in each of the ancient imperiums of Western Sudan.

Islam in the Ancient Empire of Ghana

Al-Bakri, the Muslim geographer, gives us an early history of the ancient Soninke imperium of Ghana. His Kitab fi Masalik wal Mamalik ( The Book of Roads and Kingdoms ) describes Ghana of 1068 as extremely advanced. Economically, it was a comfortable state. The King had employed Muslim translators and most of his curates and financial officers were besides Muslims. The Muslim curates were learned plenty to enter events in Arabic and corresponded, on behalf of the male monarch, with other swayers. “Also, as Muslims, they belonged to the larger organic structure politic of the Islamic universe and this would do it possible to set up international relations.”

Islam in the Empire of Mali

The influence of Islam in Mali dates back to the fifteenth century when Al-Bakri mentions the transition of its swayer to Islam. There was a suffering period of drouth which came to an terminal by offering Muslim supplications and ablutions. The Empire of Mali arose from the ruins of Ghana Empire. There are two of import names in the history of Islam in Mali: Sundiata ( 1230-1255 ) and Mansa Musa ( 1312-1337 ) . Sundiata is the laminitis of the Mali Empire but was a weak Muslim, since he practiced Islam with syncretistic patterns and was extremely disliked by the bookmans. Mansa Musa was, on the other manus, a devout Muslim and is considered to be the existent designer of the Mali Empire. By the clip Sundiata died in 1255, a big figure of former dependences of Ghana besides came under his power. After him came Mansa Uli ( 1255-1270 ) who had made a pilgrim's journey to Makkah.

Mansa ( Emperor ) Musa came to power in 1312 and his celebrity reached beyond the Sudan, North Africa and spread up to Europe. Mansa Musa ruled from 1312 to 1337 and in 1324-25 he made his celebrated pilgrim's journey to Makkah. When he returned from his pilgrim's journey, he brought with him a big figure of Muslim bookmans and designers who built five mosques for the first clip with adust bricks. Therefore Islam received its greatest encouragement during Mansa Musa’s reign. Many bookmans agree that because of his fond regard to Islam, Mansa Musa could present new thoughts to his disposal. The celebrated traveler and scholar Ibn Batutah came to Mali during Mansa Sulaiman’s reign ( 1341-1360 ) , and gives an first-class history of Mali’s authorities and its economic prosperity - in fact, a bequest of Mansa Musa’s policy. Mansa Musa’s pilgrim's journey projected Mali’s tremendous wealth and potencies which attracted more and more Muslim bargainers and bookmans. These Muslim bookmans and bargainers contributed to the cultural and economic development of Mali. It was during his reign that diplomatic dealingss were established with Tunis and Egypt, and therefore Mali began to look on the map of the universe.

Islam in the Empire of Songhay

Islam began to distribute in the Empire of Songhay some clip in the eleventh century when the opinion Za or Dia dynasty foremost accepted it. It was a comfortable part because of its dining trade with Gao. By the thirteenth century it had come under the rule of the Mali Empire but had freed itself by the terminal of the fourteenth century when the dynasty was renamed Sunni. The frontier of Songhay now expanded and in the fifteenth century, under the leading of Sunni ‘Ali, who ruled between 1464-1492, the most of import towns of the Western Sudan came under the Songhay Empire. The great metropoliss of Islamic larning like Timbuktu and Jenne came under his power between 1471-1476.

Sunni ‘Ali’s syncretism was shortly challenged by the Muslim elites and bookmans in Timbuktu, which was so a centre of Islamic acquisition and civilisation. The celebrated household of Agit, of the Berber bookmans, had the station of the Chief Justice and were known for their unafraid resistance to the swayers. In his life-time, Sunni ‘Ali took steps against the bookmans of Timbuktu ( in 1469 and in 1486 ) . But on his decease, the state of affairs wholly changed: Muslimism and Muslim bookmans triumphed. Muhammad Toure ( Towri ) , a military commanding officer asked Sunni ‘Ali’s replacement, Sunni Barou, to look before the populace and do an unfastened confession of his religion in Islam. When Barou refused to make so, Muhammad Toure ousted him and established a new dynasty in his ain name, called the Askiya dynasty. Sunni ‘Ali may be compared with Sundiata of Mali, and Askiya Muhammad Toure with Mansa Musa, a title-holder of the cause of Islam.

On his coming to power, he established Islamic jurisprudence and arranged a big figure of Muslims to be trained as Judgess. He gave his lavish backing to the bookmans and gave them big pieces of land as gifts. He became a great friend of the celebrated scholar Muhammad Al-Maghilli. It was because of his backing that high Muslim bookmans were attracted to Timbuktu, which became a great place of larning in the sixteenth century. Timbuktu has the recognition of set uping the first Muslim University, called Sankore University, in West Africa ; its name is commemorated until today in Ibadan University where a staff residential country has been named as Sankore Avenue.

Askia took such a acute involvement in the Islamic legal system that he asked a figure of inquiries on Islamic divinity from his friend Muhammad al-Maghilli. Al-Maghilli answered his inquiries in item which Askia circulated in the Songhay imperium. Some of the inquiries were about the cardinal construction of the religion, such as ‘who is a true Muslim? ’ and “who is a heathen? ” When we read Shehu ‘Uthman Dan Fodio’s works, we can see some of his statements quoted on the authorization of Al-Maghilli. In other words, Al-Maghilli’s elaborate treatments of the issues raised by Askiya Muhammad played a great function in act uponing Shehu.

Islam in Kanem-Bornu Empire

Kanem-Bornu in the thirteenth century included the part around Lake Chad, stretching as far north as Fezzan. Kanem today forms the northern portion of the Republic of Chad. Islam was accepted for the first clip by the Kanem swayer, Umme-Jilmi, who ruled between 1085-1097 C.E. , through a bookman named Muhammad B. Mani, credited for conveying Islam to Kanem-Bornu. Umme-Jilmi became a devout Muslim. He left on a pilgrim's journey but died in Egypt before making Makkah. Al-Bakri besides mentions that Umayyad refugees, who had fled from Baghdad following programs to neutralize their dynasty at the custodies of the Abbasids, were shacking in Kanem.

With the debut of Islam in Kanem, it became the chief focal point of Muslim influence in the cardinal Sudan and dealingss were established with the Arab universe in the Middle East and the Maghrib. Umme’s boy Dunama I ( 1092-1150 ) besides went on a pilgrim's journey and was crowned in Egypt, while shiping at Suez for Makkah, during the 3rd pilgrim's journey journey. During the reign of Dunama II ( 1221-1259 ) , a Kanem embassy was established in Tunisia around 1257, as mentioned by the celebrated Andalusian historian Ibn Khaldun ( d. 1406 C.E. ) . It was about at the same clip that a college and a inn were established in Cairo, named Madrasah Ibn Rashiq. Toward the terminal of the thirteenth century, Kanem became a centre of Islamic cognition and celebrated instructors came from Mali to learn in Kanem. By the center of the thirteenth century, Kanem established diplomatic dealingss with Tuat ( in the Algerian Sahara ) and with the Hafsid province of Tunis at embassy degree. The Kanem bookmans and poets could compose classical Arabic of a really high criterion. We have grounds of this in a missive written by the Chief Scribe of the Kanem tribunal dating from 1391 to 1392.

Islam in Hausa-Fulani land

There is a well-known Hausa fable refering the beginning of the Hausa province, attributed to Bayajida ( Bayazid ) who came from Begh to settle down in Kanem-Bornu. The governing Mai of Bornu of that clip ( we do non hold any information about the clip ) welcomed Bayajida and gave his girl in matrimony to him but at the same clip robbed him of his legion followings. He fled from the Mai with his married woman and came to Gaya Mai Kano and asked the goldworker of Kano to do a blade for him. The narrative tells us that Bayajida helped the people of Kano by killing a supernatural serpent which had prevented them from pulling H2O from a well. It is said that the queen, named Daura, married him in grasp of his service to the people. Bayajida got a boy named Bawo from Daura. Bawo, himself, had seven boies: Biran, Dcura, Katsina, Zaria, Kano, Rano and Gebir, who became the laminitiss of the Hausa provinces. Whatever may be the virtue of this narrative, it tries to explicate how Hausa linguistic communication and civilization spread throughout the northern provinces of Nigeria.

Islam came to Hausaland in early fourteenth century. About 40 Wangarawa graders are said to hold brought Islam with them during the reign of ‘Ali Yaji who ruled Kano during the old ages 1349-1385. A mosque was built and a muedthin ( one who calls to prayer ) was appointed to give adthan ( name to prayer ) and a justice was named to give spiritual determinations. During the reign of a swayer named, Yaqub ( 1452-1463 ) , one Fulani migrated to Kano and introduced books on Islamic Jurisprudence. By the clip Muhammad Rumfa came into power ( 1453-1499 ) , Islam was steadfastly rooted in Kano. In his reign Muslim bookmans came to Kano ; some bookmans besides came from Timbuktu to learn and prophesy Islam.

Muhammad Rumfa consulted Muslim bookmans on the personal businesss of authorities. It was he who had asked the celebrated Muslim theologian Al-Maghilli to compose a book on Muslim authorities during the latter’s visit to Kano in the fifteenth century. The book is a famed chef-d'oeuvre and is called The Duty of the Princes. Al-Maghilli subsequently went to Katsina, which had become a place of larning in the fifteenth century. Most of the pilgrims from Makkah would travel to Katsina. Scholars from the Sankore University of Timbuktu besides visited the metropolis and brought with them books on deity and etymology. In the thirteenth century, Katsina produced native bookmans like Muhammadu Dan Marina and Muhammadu Dan Masina ( d. 1667 ) whose plants are available even today.

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