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Railway Operations ( 1865 - 1875 )

The first span over Mihi Creek was one of four Bridgess constructed on the line between Ipswich and Grandchester. The embankment of the Mihi crossing was exposed to deluge Waterss from the Bremer River and Mihi Creek and began to lessen after a inundation in April 1867. The crossing was ill-famed for the crisp contrary curves in the attacks to the span. In May 1868, the Mihi divergence was completed at a cost of about £6350 and opened for traffic. This crossed the brook above the inundation degree about 200 meters ( 660 foot ) further up watercourse and it followed a gentler curve. The old line was removed and the span was dismantled and stored.

Coal Mining and Coking Operations ( 1864 - c. 1960 )

Primary beginnings of historical information for coke industry in the West Moreton field, and across Queensland by and large, are scarce as the early ordinance of Queensland 's excavation industry was focused chiefly on gold excavation. Coal excavation was non regulated until the eightiess with the transition of the Mines Regulation Act 1881, the Mineral Lands Act 1882 and the Mineral Lands ( Coal-Mining ) Act 1886. The Mines Regulation Act allowed the assignment of mines inspectors and the first was appointed in January 1882. While these inspectors reported on a regular basis on the operations of coal mines, coke industry was non covered by the definitions of the Act and hence non considered officially portion of the excavation industry and went mostly unreported. Coal excavation was non covered by specific statute law until 1925, and these ordinances besides made no reference of coking. This has led to no systematic record maintaining of coke industry in Queensland - particularly refering production Numberss, value, equipment used, people employed, or any other elaborate characteristic. Information contained in Queensland authorities records is fragmental - except for State owned endeavors such as those at Bowen and Mount Mulligan in northern Queensland.

Twelve coke ovens, known as the Mihi Ovens, were shortly constructed on the hillside above Mihi Creek. Coke ovens erected on the West Moreton Coalfield were entirely of the beehive type, so called because of their vaulted visual aspect. Beehive coke ovens consisted of a brick dome with a little round gap ( an issue fluke ) at the vertex, and a larger arched gap at one side to allow bear downing and pulling. They were normally constructed in dual rows known as batteries. The infinite between ovens was normally filled with rubble and Earth to supply insularity and the whole battery surrounded by a rock retaining wall to defy the outward push of the brick domes. The Mihi Ovens remained in usage until 1890/1 when Wright 's attending was diverted a new coal development at the New Bishop Mine located nearby.


The larger of the two embankments ( the 1867/8 alliance ) runs in a gentler curve and is located farthest from the river. The embankments terminate at steep inclines on either side of Mihi Creek where the span abutments one time stood. On the western side the embankments are readily discernible, lifting in tallness to the border of the brook. To the E the embankments tend to unify with lifting land and are less identifiable. At the tops of the embankments where the dirt is thin, unformed sandstone blocks are seeable. The tops of these blocks are at land degree. A figure of blocks are besides located at the south western corner of the site near where the smaller embankment crosses a gully. A block bearing choice Markss is besides located in this country.

Dressed sandstone blocks were besides identified on the western attacks of the 1864-5 span as was a suspected inhumed sandstone culvert ( or the remains of one ) on the 1864 line West of Mihi Creek within Lot 1 on RP146565. These remains consist of several cut sandstone blocks, embedded in the side of the 1864 embankment. Later buildup of solids on top of this topographic point, including the installing of garden beds, may hide more remains from the culvert. A culvert is shown at this location on early programs for the railroad. Extra culverts of this manner still exist in the nearby country - at Wulkuraka to the West ( Sandstone Railway Culvert, Wulkuraka ) and straight Es of the site across Mihi Creek at North Ipswich ( Sandstone Railway Culvert, North Ipswich ) .

The first battery of beehive ovens, the `` Mihi Ovens '' built c.1884 by John Wright and Brydon and Jones & Coy, so proprietors of the Mihi Mine, is located on Lot 5 on AP3320 instantly north and west of the Klondyke Coke Ovens. The ovens were recorded by Whitmore ( 1983 ) and re-located by DERM ( 2010 ) . In 1987 Whitmore noted a programme of tipping and re-contouring in this country which threatened to steep the ovens. This fill event has been verified by Department of Environment and Resource Management trial diggings. The entrywaies of three ovens from this original bank of ovens are now partially exposed on the incline situated between the upper and in-between terraced countries to the immediate West of the Klondyke Coke Ovens. The full extent and dimensions of the ovens remains ill-defined, though this battery has been described as consisting of 12 ovens. Their orientation is most likely similar to other beehive ovens on the Ipswich - West Moreton field, being either back-to-back or in a lurch form. The infinite between each oven would be filled with Earth or debris for insularity, and grounds of compacted orange clay was recorded in DERM during trial diggings in the country. Evidence of a rock retaining wall environing the ovens has non been re-located, but subdivisions may still last.

The remains of a two little brick constructions of unknown map are situated instantly north of the oven sites. Unknown Structure 1, located closest to the ovens and instantly above their next rail goad film editing, is constructed of mortared orange bricks and steps about 2m ten 3m. Metallic artifacts of unknown map remain in situ within the construction, and attempts to place these artifacts may supply information on the map and usage of this construction. Unknown Structure 2 is situated 5m North of the first construction. It is constructed of approximately made though good mortared together cement bricks and measures 2m ten 2m and is 2m in tallness. A cement `` capping '' has been fitted over the construction, with ulterior bricks added above. The southern lift features a little cement brick return. The map of this construction remains unknown, though the Unknown Structure 2 may be a capped airing shaft installed for one of the two tunnels dug during operations of the Francis Mine on this site between 1908 and 1923.

The `` Mihi Ovens '' and next Klondyke Coke Ovens were fenced and partly cleared of pest flora by DERM under the supervising of DERM heritage officers between February and April 2010. Stumps and root constructions of all big trees and workss remains to help keep the structural unity of the environing dirts and the ovens themselves. The alliance of the fencing follows the topography of the country and encompasses the predicted extent of the oven battery, the two unidentified brick constructions located above the oven batteries, a subdivision of low retaining wall on the lower patio country to the South of the ovens, and a figure of other elements thought to associate to the coke fabrication operations. The `` Mihi Ovens '' fencing is an extension of the bing fence for the Klondyke Coke Ovens erected by DERM in 2009. It runs next to Parker Lane in the North, so downhill in a southern way before running in a southeast way to rejoin the Klondyke Coke Ovens fencing.

Heritage listing

The leftovers of coal excavation and coke industry are of import in showing of import industries in the part 's and Queensland 's history. Coke industry played an of import though under-recognised function in early coal excavation and related industries over an drawn-out period of clip ( 1870s - c. 1960 ) . The Mihi Creek site includes archeological artifacts which illustrate early illustrations of procedures and activities associating to the increasing demand for quality coke for usage in early Queensland industry in the late nineteenth century ( peculiarly for rail and maritime industries and coal-powered engines by and large ) .

The country instantly adjacent the former rail line embankments have high potency to incorporate farther constructions and archeological grounds associated with Queensland 's first subdivision of chief line. This country has possible to supply farther information about the building of rail formations and embankments at the origin of the State 's railroad development. Comparative analyses of elements of the line within the Mihi Creek site with other known antecedently recorded characteristics ( e.g. Sandstone Railway Culvert, North Ipswich, Sandstone Railway Culvert, Wulkuraka, and North Ipswich Railway Workshops ) have possible to cast new visible radiation on this of import development in Queensland 's history.

The dearth of primary documental stuff associating to coke industry in Queensland makes archeological grounds the primary beginning associating to coke industry. Subsurface remains would have high unity due to miss of perturbation since the surcease of coke industry in c. 1960. Archaeological probes within the Mihi Creek site could bring forth grounds which would corroborate or dispute modern-day apprehensions of the coke industry in Queensland, peculiarly about coke fabrication procedures, coking substructure, coke works layout, administration and development through clip.

While the pit and coking operations at Mihi Creek were one of a figure of the type within the West Moreton Coalfield, they were besides one of the longest running ( 1870s - c. 1960 ) and underwent important alteration over clip, including proprietors and potentially equipment and production techniques. Archaeological probes have possible to uncover of import information about specific operations at Mihi Creek, peculiarly the full extent of coal excavation and coke industry, the types of equipment used ( other than beehive oven type and likely figure in the original battery ) , and the precise location of cardinal characteristics.


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