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Literature review

A literature review is a text of a scholarly paper, which includes the current cognition including substantial findings, every bit good as theoretical and methodological parts to a peculiar subject. Literature reappraisals are secondary beginnings, and do non describe new or original experimental work. Most frequently associated with academic-oriented literature, such reappraisals are found in academic diaries, and are non to be confused with book reappraisals that may besides look in the same publication. Literature reappraisals are a footing for research in about every academic field. A narrow-scope literature review may be included as portion of a peer-reviewed diary article showing new research, functioning to locate the current survey within the organic structure of the relevant literature and to supply context for the reader. In such a instance, the review normally precedes the methodological analysis and consequences subdivisions of the work.

Procedure and merchandise

The first class in Bloom 's taxonomy is retrieving. For a individual making a literature review this would include undertakings such as acknowledgment, retrieval and remembrance of the relevant literature. During this phase relevant books, articles, monographs, thesiss, etc. are identified and read. Bloom’s 2nd class understanding occurs as the bookman comprehends the stuff they have collected and read. This measure is critical because no 1 can compose clearly about something they do non understand. Understanding may be disputing because the literature could present the bookman to new nomenclature, conceptual model and methodological analysis. Comprehension ( peculiarly for new bookmans ) is frequently improved by taking careful notes. In Bloom’s 3rd class using the bookman is able to do connexions between the literature and his or her larger research undertaking. This is peculiarly true if the literature review is to be a chapter in a future empirical survey. The literature review begins to inform the research inquiry, and methodological attacks. When bookmans analyze ( 4th class in Bloom 's taxonomy ) they are able to divide stuff into parts and figure out how the parts fit together. Analysis of the literature allows the bookman to develop models for analysis and the ability to see the large image and cognize how inside informations from the literature tantrum within the large image. Analysis facilitates the development of an lineation ( list ) . The books, articles and monographs read will be of different quality and value. When bookmans use Bloom’s 5th class measuring they are able to see the strengths and failings of the theories, statements, methodological analysis and findings of the literature they have collected and read. When scholars engage in making the concluding class in Bloom 's taxonomy, they bring creativeness to the procedure of making a literature review. In other words, they draw new and original penetrations from the literature. They may be able to happen a fresh and original research inquiry, place a heretofore, unknown spread in the literature or do surprising connexions. By understanding how ways of believing connect to undertakings of a literature review, a bookman is able to be self-reflective and convey metacognition to the procedure of reexamining the literature.

Types of Literature Reviews

Argumentative Review This signifier examines literature selectively in order to back up or rebut an statement, profoundly imbedded premise, or philosophical job already established in the literature. The intent is to develop a organic structure of literature that establishes a contrarian point of view. Given the value-laden nature of some societal scientific discipline research, argumentative attacks to analysing the literature can be a legitimate and of import signifier of discourse. However, note that they can besides present jobs of prejudice when they are used to do drumhead claims of the kind found in systematic reappraisals.

Methodological Review A review does non ever concentrate on what person said, but how they came about stating what they say. Reviewing methods of analysis provides a model of understanding at different degrees, how research workers draw upon a broad assortment of cognition runing from the conceptual degree to practical paperss for usage in fieldwork in the countries of ontological and epistemic consideration, quantitative and qualitative integrating, trying, questioning, informations aggregation, and informations analysis. This attack helps highlight ethical issues which you should be cognizant of and see as you go through your ain survey.

Systematic Review This signifier consists of an overview of bing grounds pertinent to a clearly formulated research inquiry, which uses pre-specified and standardised methods to place and critically measure relevant research, and to roll up, study, and analyze informations from the surveies that are included in the review. The end is to intentionally document, critically measure, and sum up scientifically all of the research about a clearly defined research job. Typically it focuses on a really specific empirical inquiry, frequently posed in a cause-and-effect signifier, such as `` To what extent does A contribute to B? '' This type of literature review is chiefly applied to analyzing anterior research surveies in clinical medical specialty and allied wellness Fieldss, but it is progressively being used in the societal scientific disciplines.

Theoretical Review The intent of this signifier is to analyze the principal of theory that has accumulated in respect to an issue, construct, theory, phenomena. The theoretical literature review helps to set up what theories already exist, the relationships between them, to what degree the bing theories have been investigated, and to develop new hypotheses to be tested. Often this signifier is used to help set up a deficiency of appropriate theories or uncover that current theories are unequal for explicating new or emerging research jobs. The unit of analysis can concentrate on a theoretical construct or a whole theory or model.

Baumeister, Roy F. and Mark R. Leary. `` Writing Narrative Literature Reviews. '' Review of General Psychology 1 ( September 1997 ) : 311-320 ; Mark R. Fink, Arlene. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper. 2nd erectile dysfunction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005 ; Hart, Chris. Making a Literature Review: Let go ofing the Social Science Research Imagination. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998 ; Kennedy, Mary M. `` Specifying a Literature. '' Educational Researcher 36 ( April 2007 ) : 139-147 ; Petticrew, Mark and Helen Roberts. Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2006 ; Torracro, Richard. `` Writing Integrative Literature Reviews: Guidelines and Examples. '' Human Resource Development Review 4 ( September 2005 ) : 356-367 ; Rocco, Tonette S. and Maria S. Plakhotnik. `` Literature Reviews, Conceptual Frameworks, and Theoretical Frameworks: Footings, Functions, and Distinctions. '' Human Ressource Development Review 8 ( March 2008 ) : 120-130 ; Sutton, Anthea. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2016.

Structure and Writing Style

See the undermentioned issues before writing the literature review: Clarify If your assignment is non really specific about what organize your literature review should take, seek elucidation from your professor by inquiring these inquiries: 1. Roughly how many beginnings should I include? 2. What types of beginnings should I review ( books, diary articles, web sites ; scholarly versus popular beginnings ) ? 3. Should I sum up, synthesise, or review beginnings by discoursing a common subject or publish? 4. Should I measure the beginnings? 5. Should I supply subheadings and other background information, such as definitions and/or a history? Find Models Use the exercising of reexamining the literature to analyze how writers in your subject or country of involvement have composed their literature review subdivisions. Read them to acquire a sense of the types of subjects you might desire to look for in your ain research or to place ways to form your concluding review. The bibliography or mention subdivision of beginnings you 've already read are besides first-class entry points into your ain research. Narrow the Topic The narrower your subject, the easier it will be to restrict the figure of beginnings you need to read in order to obtain a good study of relevant resources. Your professor will likely non anticipate you to read everything that 's available about the subject, but you 'll do your occupation easier if you first limit range of the research job. A good scheme is to get down by seeking the HOMER catalog for books about the subject and review the tabular array of contents for chapters that focuses on specific issues. You can besides review the indexes of books to happen mentions to specific issues that can function as the focal point of your research. For illustration, a book appraising the history of the Israeli-Palestinian struggle may include a chapter on the function Egypt has played in interceding the struggle, or expression in the index for the pages where Egypt is mentioned in the text. See Whether Your Beginnings are Current Some subjects require that you use information that is every bit current as possible. This is peculiarly true in subjects in medical specialty and the scientific disciplines where research conducted becomes disused really rapidly as new finds are made. However, when writing a review in the societal scientific disciplines, a study of the history of the literature may be required. In other words, a complete understanding the research job requires you to intentionally analyze how cognition and positions have changed over clip. Sort through other current bibliographies or literature reappraisals in the field to acquire a sense of what your subject expects. You can besides utilize this method to research what is considered by bookmans to be a `` hot subject '' and what is non.

Chronology of Events If your review follows the chronological method, you could compose about the stuffs harmonizing to when they were published. This attack should merely be followed if a clear way of research edifice on old research can be identified and that these tendencies follow a clear chronological order of development. For illustration, a literature review that focuses on go oning research about the outgrowth of German economic power after the autumn of the Soviet Union. By Publication Order your beginnings by publication chronology, so, merely if the order demonstrates a more of import tendency. For case, you could order a review of literature on environmental surveies of brown Fieldss if the patterned advance revealed, for illustration, a alteration in the dirt aggregation patterns of the research workers who wrote and/or conducted the surveies. Thematic Thematic reappraisals of literature are organized around a subject or issue, instead than the patterned advance of clip. However, patterned advance of clip may still be an of import factor in a thematic review. For illustration, a review of the Internet’s impact on American presidential political relations could concentrate on the development of on-line political sarcasm. While the survey focuses on one subject, the Internet’s impact on American presidential political relations, it will still be organized chronologically reflecting technological developments in media. The lone difference here between a `` chronological '' and a `` thematic '' attack is what is emphasized the most: the function of the Internet in presidential political relations. Note nevertheless that more reliable thematic reappraisals tend to interrupt away from chronological order. A review organized in this mode would switch between clip periods within each subdivision harmonizing to the point made. Methodological A methodological attack focuses on the methods utilized by the research worker. For the Internet in American presidential political relations undertaking, one methodological attack would be to look at cultural differences between the portraiture of American presidents on American, British, and Gallic web sites. Or the review might concentrate on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a peculiar political party. A methodological range will act upon either the types of paperss in the review or the manner in which these paperss are discussed.

Other Sections of Your Literature Review Once you 've decided on the organisational method for your literature review, the subdivisions you need to include in the paper should be easy to calculate out because they arise from your organisational scheme. In other words, a chronological review would hold subdivisions for each critical clip period ; a thematic review would hold subtopics based upon factors that relate to the subject or issue. However, sometimes you may necessitate to add extra subdivisions that are necessary for your survey, but do non suit in the organisational scheme of the organic structure. What other subdivisions you include in the organic structure is up to you but include merely what is necessary for the reader to turn up your survey within the larger scholarship model.

Use Evidence A literature review subdivision is, in this sense, merely like any other academic research paper. Your reading of the available beginnings must be backed up with grounds that demonstrates that what you are stating is valid. Be Selective Select merely the most of import points in each beginning to foreground in the review. The type of information you choose to advert should associate straight to the research job, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological. Related points that provide extra information but that are non cardinal to understanding the research job can be included in a list of farther readings. Use Quotes Meagerly Some short quotation marks are all right if you want to stress a point, or if what an writer stated can non be easy paraphrased. Sometimes you may necessitate to cite certain nomenclature that was coined by the writer, non common cognition, or taken straight from the survey. Do non utilize extended quotation marks as a replacement for your ain drumhead and reading of the literature. Summarize and Synthesize Remember to sum up and synthesise your beginnings within each thematic paragraph every bit good as throughout the review. Recapitulate of import characteristics of a research survey, but so synthesise it by paraphrasing the survey 's significance and associating it to your ain work. Keep Your Own Voice While the literature review presents others ' thoughts, your voice should stay front and centre. For illustration, weave mentions to other beginnings into what you are writing but keep your ain voice by get downing and stoping the paragraph with your ain thoughts and give voicing. Use Caution When Paraphrasing When rephrasing a beginning that is non your ain, be certain to stand for the writer 's information or sentiments accurately and in your ain words. Even when rephrasing an author’s work, you still must supply a commendation to that work.

Cook, Kathleen E. and Elise Murowchick. “Do Literature Review Skills Transfer from One Course to Another? ” Psychology Learning and Teaching 13 ( March 2014 ) : 3-11 ; Fink, Arlene. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper. 2nd erectile dysfunction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005 ; Hart, Chris. Making a Literature Review: Let go ofing the Social Science Research Imagination. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998 ; Jesson, Jill. Making Your Literature Reappraisal: Traditional and Systematic Techniques. London: Sage, 2011 ; Literature Review Handout. Online Writing Center. Liberty University ; Literature Reviews. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina ; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. and Rebecca Frels. Seven Steps to a Comprehensive Literature Review: A Multimodal and Cultural Approach. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2016 ; Ridley, Diana. The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students. 2nd erectile dysfunction. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2012 ; Randolph, Justus J. “A Guide to Writing the Dissertation Literature Review. '' Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation. vol. 14, June 2009 ; Sutton, Anthea. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2016 ; Taylor, Dena. The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto ; Writing a Literature Review. Academic Skills Centre. University of Canberra.

Writing Tip

Thinking interdisciplinarily about a research job can be a rewarding exercising in using new thoughts, theories, or constructs to an old job. For illustration, what might cultural anthropologists say about the go oning struggle in the Middle East? In what ways might geographers see the demand for better distribution of societal service bureaus in big metropoliss than how societal workers might analyze the issue? You don’t want to replace a thorough review of nucleus research literature in your subject for surveies conducted in other Fieldss of survey. However, peculiarly in the societal scientific disciplines, believing about research jobs from multiple vectors is a cardinal scheme for happening new solutions to a job or deriving a new position. Consult with a librarian about placing research databases in other subjects ; about every field of survey has at least one comprehensive database devoted to indexing its research literature.

What is a review of the literature?

A literature review is an history of what has been published on a subject by commissioned bookmans and research workers. Occasionally you will be asked to compose one as a separate assignment ( sometimes in the signifier of an annotated bibliography—see the underside of the following page ) , but more frequently it is portion of the debut to an essay, research study, or thesis. In writing the literature review, your intent is to convey to your reader what cognition and thoughts have been established on a subject, and what their strengths and failings are. As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding construct ( e.g. , your research aim, the job or issue you are discoursing, or your argumentative thesis ) . It is non merely a descriptive list of the stuff available, or a set of sum-ups

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