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Composing a Fugue

.then we compose a piece of 2-part counterpoint that makes usage of some of the rhythmic and melodious motivations from the gap and performs a transition back to the tonic key, fixing the manner for the entryway of the 3rd voice. It turns out when I set out to compose it, it took three steps to do the passage. I wanted a sequence, so I continued the line of the terminal of the tune and first had it modulate back to G child. Then I thought, why non? , how about go oning the sequence and touch briefly on F major, the dominant of the comparative major. After this two-measure sequence, an extra step was needed to fix the concluding entryway.


1590s, fuge, from Italian fuga `` ardour, '' literally `` flight, '' from Latin fuga `` act of fleeing, '' from fugere `` to fly '' ( see fleeting ) . Current spelling ( 1660s ) is from the Gallic version of the Italian word. A Fugue is a composing founded upon one topic, announced at first in one portion entirely, and later imitated by all the other parts in bend, harmonizing to certain general rules to be afterlife explained. The name is derived from the Latin word fuga, a flight, from the thought that one portion starts on its class entirely, and that those which enter subsequently are prosecuting it.

1 Answer 1

The thought of fugue is pretty straightforward: it 's a process instead than a signifier, truly. You introduce each voice with imitative entries of the topic, normally at the tonic degree and transposed to the dominant degree ( capable and reply ) , and each voice continues reasonably freely after exposing its capable entry. The initial exposure of the topic in all the voices is called the expounding. You may necessitate to do tonic accommodations to the reply to maintain it from modulating off from the tonic excessively rapidly. ( The Gedalge book goes into how that 's done in some item. ) The continuance of a voice after the topic may affect a countersubject that is played systematically against a subsequent entry of the topic in a different voice. ( That is to state, one voice exposes the topic, so continues with the countersubject as the following voice comes in with the topic. ) If you already cognize your invertible counterpoint, this is n't peculiarly tough to pull off.

The biggest jobs I normally see are jobs of managing the composite beat of the voices when played together: either the voices all move in lockstep ( which is truly merely writing in block chords ) , or they articulate every quaver ( or semiquaver, or whatever the unit of background motion is ) between them ( counterpoint by Singer run uping machine, so to talk ) . Your voices are freely spread outing tunes, so you do desire some rhythmic distinction within them and between them. If one voice is utilizing consecutive quavers, for case, arrange that the other voices are utilizing longer and more irregular rhythmic values. This is where your counterpoint surveies come into their ain: all your grace note, suspensions and go throughing notes will non merely let you write the voices melodically against the implied harmoniousnesss, they will let you to joint the fugue rhythmically. This is no less of import in a fugue than in a sonata. You want your voices ' beat to come together to set weight on of import meters ; you want adequate rhythmic incompletion and impulse that the voices do n't come to a complete arrest at an internal meter.

Most of the clip, when a voice drops out, it does so on a cadential melodious note, normally the quinine water or dominant of the current key. When it comes back in, it normally does so with a capable entry, and, of class, the entry is traveling to come in when the harmoniousness and round can back up its incipit or gap motive. Capable entries normally stand out when they are at the top or underside of the texture. For alto or tenor entries that need to stand out, it is normally a good thought either to drop out the voices above or below that might befog the entry, or to keep them reasonably inactive ( so that the melodious alterations in the internal voice are noticeable ) .

How Is Dissociative Fugue Diagnosed?

If symptoms of dissociative fugue are present, the physician will frequently get down an rating by executing a complete medical history and physical test. Although there are no lab tests to specifically name dissociative upsets, the physician might sometimes urge assorted diagnostic trials, such as neuroimaging surveies, EEGs ( EEGs ) , and blood trials, to govern out physical unwellness or medicine side effects if these are suspected as doing the symptoms. Certain conditions -- including encephalon diseases ( such as epilepsy ) , caput hurts, drug and intoxicant poisoning, and sleep want -- can take to symptoms similar to those of dissociative upsets, including memory loss ( loss of memory ) .

History of the fugue

The earliest and most strict imitative technique in Western polyphonic music is the canon, in which each consecutive voice ( the term for a musical line that is sung or played ) has the same tune. Canons appeared in the thirteenth century and have been an of import resource in Western counterpoint to the present twenty-four hours. ( Folk music includes many illustrations of reiterating canon, called unit of ammunition: “Frère Jacques” and “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” are familiar illustrations. ) Fugue can be thought of as a ulterior phase in the development of canon. The name fuga was applied to canonic pieces every bit early as the fourteenth century, but the logical ascendants of the to the full developed fugue are the closely imitative beginnings of late 16th-century ensemble canzonas, such as those by Giovanni Gabrieli, every bit good as the related ricercare.

An early Baroque work for keyboard demoing intense imitative development of a individual topic is the Fantasia chromatica by Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, although much of this piece is dominated by fast-moving melodious counterpoint in a free, improvisatory manner without the imitative topic. The Fiori musicali ( 1635 ; “Musical Flowers” ) of Girolamo Frescobaldi include imitative cantus firmus pieces ( i.e. , based on a preexisting tune ) , every bit good as such significant fugues as the Recercar dopo Illinois Credo ( “Ricercare After the Credo” ) and Canzon station Illinois comune ( “Canzona After the Communion” ) .

In the seventeenth century, such composers as Frescobaldi and Johann Jakob Froberger made usage of fugal technique within the context of larger motions. The same technique was used at times by Johann Sebastian Bach, as in some of his keyboard preliminaries in Das wohltemperirte Clavier ( 1722, 1744 ; The Well-Tempered Clavier, two books, each consisting 24 mated preliminaries and fugues in all the major and minor keys ) ; the E-flat Major Prelude in the first book, for illustration, freely intermixes purely fugal and wholly nonfugal transitions. By the clip of Bach, the fugue as a complete composing, or as a named and self-contained subdivision of a larger composing, had been good established in keyboard plants by Dietrich Buxtehude, Johann Pachelbel, Georg Muffat, and many others in Germany, every bit good as in orchestral concerti by Antonio Vivaldi and others in Italy. The composer Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer’s Ariadne musica ( 1702 ) , with preliminaries and fugues in braces, in most of the possible keys, is a precursor of Bach’s The Well-Tempered Clavier.

The plants of Bach base at the really pinnacle of the history of the fugue. Bach’s fugues remain unexcelled in their extraordinary assortment and in their single flawlessness, and no other composer produced so many glorious illustrations of fugues big and little for every medium available to him at the clip. Barely less impressive, though non as legion, are the large-scale choral fugues in the cantatas of Bach’s modern-day, George Frideric Handel, every bit good as the fugues in concertante manner in his concerti grossi. Yet by the center of the eighteenth century, the fugue had passed its extremum in popularity with composers ; in the late eighteenth century, the fugue would last chiefly in sacred music as a theoretical account of sacred tradition. The symphonic epoch had begun, the period of Viennese Classicism, and the textures of the sonata and symphonic music developed in the way of accompanied tune and chordal textures, by and large go forthing aside consistently maintained contrapuntal textures.

The accomplishment and imaginativeness of Bach and Handel were however an inspiration to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart when he wrote the choral fugues in his Mass in C Minor, K 427 ( 1782 ) , and Requiem, K 626 ( 1791 ) . As a composer in instrumental signifiers, Mozart employed fugal technique merely rarely but with conspicuous success, as in the Fugue in C Minor for two pianos, K 426 ( 1783 ) , and the F Minor Fantasia for organ, K 608 ( 1791 ) . The coda of Mozart’s Symphony No. 41 in C Major, K 551 ( 1788 ; Jupiter ) , a sonata-form motion with extended transitions of fugato in quintet invertible counterpoint ( see Elementss of the fugue, below ) , is a alone circuit de force in the history of music. Joseph Haydn employed the fugue several times in his multitudes and on occasion in his symphonies—such as Symphony No. 70 in D Major ( foremost performed 1779 ) —and chamber music ( for illustration, Stringing Quartet in F Minor, Opus 20, No. 5 ) .

Ludwig new wave Beethoven brought the Classical symphonic music, piano sonata, and threading quartet to a extremum of lyrical and dramatic look, but he besides rediscovered the ignored fugue and virtually reinvented it. The 2nd motion of his Stringing Quartet in C Minor, Opus 18, No. 4 ( 1798–1800 ) , begins with extended fugato transitions, and the intervention of the beginning of the slow motion of his Symphony No. 1 in C Major, Opus 21 ( 1799–1800 ) , is rather similar. Even more extended fugal intervention dominates the coda of the String Quartet in C Major, Opus 59, No. 3 ( 1806 ) . Yet in his last plants, Beethoven carried the fugue to new extremes, in the first motion and choral coda of the Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Opus 125 ( 1822–24 ) ; in the Mass in D Major, Opus 123 ( 1819–23 ; Missa solemnis ) ; in the tremendous coda of the Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, Opus 106 ( 1817–18 ; Hammerklavier ) ; and in the Grosse Fuge in B-flat Major for threading quartet, Opus 133 ( 1825–26 ; Great Fugue ) . In the Hammerklavier fugue Beethoven calls non merely for multiple stretti ( overlapping entrywaies ; see below ) , melodious inversion ( traveling in the opposite way ; see below ) , and augmentation ( lengthening note values ) but besides the seldom-used cancrizans ( literally, “crablike” ) , in which the fugue topic is written rearward, note for note. Here and in the Great Fugue, Beethoven divides the fugue into subdivisions, with alterations of cardinal, meter, and pacing ; the Great Fugue assembles a three-movement construction into a individual motion about 25 proceedingss long, all controlled by a individual fugue topic with several countersubjects.

After Beethoven, the fugue was favoured in the nineteenth century by composers who were influenced by the rediscovery of Bach’s masterworks. In the singular “Offertory” of Hector Berlioz’s Grande Messe des morts ( 1837 ; Requiem ) , the full fugal intervention is in the orchestra, with a really long topic surmounted by a choral ostinato motivation on merely two notes. Organ works by Felix Mendelssohn, Franz Liszt, and César Franck, every bit good as Liszt’s Piano Sonata in B Minor ( 1851–53 ) and Faust Symphony ( 1857 ) and Franck’s Prelude, Chorale and Fugue for piano ( 1884 ) , contain noteworthy fugal transitions. Johannes Brahms’s Variations and Fugue on a Subject by G.F. Handel ( 1861 ) is a worthwhile illustration, and his German Requiem ( 1857–68 ) includes a 37-measure fugue wholly on a tonic pedal point, every bit good as a brilliant dual fugue. Giuseppe Verdi turned to the venerable technique for his Messa district attorney Requiem ( 1874 ) and created a dramatic vocal fugue to stop his last opera, Falstaff ( 1893 ) , to the text “Tutto nel mondo è burla” ( “The whole universe is a joke” ) . At the bend of the nineteenth century and into the 20th, Gustav Mahler’s symphonic musics exhibited a conspicuous and impeccably skilled concern with orchestral counterpoint, but of his plants merely the coda of the Symphony No. 5 ( 1901–02 ) showed a echt fugue expounding. Max Reger and Ferruccio Busoni continued the Bach-inspired tradition of fugue writing into 20th-century keyboard music of great complexness. The neoclassical motion in European and American music marked a reinvigoration of involvement in fugue ( see the sidebar, Fugues of the twentieth century, for farther illustrations ) .

Elementss of the fugue

Fugal techniques can bring forth music of great involvement and complexness, although the ingredients of a fugue are comparatively few and the processs are straightforward. The first subdivision, ever included, is the expounding, during which the principal subject, or capable, is stated in turn in each of the constitutional voices or parts. The first statement of the topic is in one voice entirely. While this voice continues, the 2nd statement enters, transposed to the key of the dominant ( the fifth grade of the graduated table ) , and is called the reply ; the 3rd statement returns to the chief key ; the 4th statement, if there is one, typically is in the dominant key once more. If the tune of the reply is an exact heterotaxy of the topic, into the new key, it is a existent reply ; frequently, nevertheless, the tune will be somewhat manipulated to avoid a true alteration of cardinal, in which instance it is a tonic reply.

Assortments of the fugue

Fugues in two voices are rare, and in Bach’s The Well-Tempered Clavier there is merely one, No. 10 of Book 1 ; a few of his Fifteen Inventions are two-voice fugues ( Nos. 5, 10, 12, and 15 ) . Five- , six- , and even seven-part fugues are likewise possible but uncommon. Two fugues in The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1, are five-part fugues, Nos. 4 and 22. The gap “Kyrie” of Bach’s Mass in B Minor, BWV 232 ( 1747–49 ) , is a five-part fugue ; the first “Credo” is a seven-part fugue over a free bass, an illustration of peculiarly complex yet clear counterpoint. The six-part fugue in the Musical Offer, BWV 1079 ( 1747 ; Musikalisches Opfer ) , Bach chose to name ricercare in honor of the older signifier.

Composers have varied the topic by duplicating the rhythmic value of each note, a technique known as augmentation. Conversely, they may cut the values in half, or into smaller fractions, ensuing in the decline of the topic. Another attack to pull stringsing the topic is melodious inversion, in which the up and down intervals of the topic are precisely reversed ; for illustration, if the topic moves upward a whole tone ( as from g to a ) , the inversion moves downward a whole tone ( as from g to f ) . In The Art of the Fugue, BWV 1080 ( published 1751 ; Die Kunst der Fuge ) , Bach composed two three-voice mirror fugues ; each of these is paired with a 2nd fugue that is the exact mirror inversion, in all parts, of the first.

In a dual fugue two topics may have coincident expounding ; the consequence is similar to a simple fugue with a countersubject, as is the instance in the gap chorus of Bach’s St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244 ( 1727 ; Passio secundum Matthaeum ) . More frequently, in a dual fugue the composer gives the two topics separate complete expoundings, foremost one and so the other, and finally brings the two topics together, as in The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2, No. 18, a three-voice fugue. In Mozart’s Fugue in G Minor, K 401, for piano four custodies ( 1782 ) , the two topics are melodious inversions of each other.

A fughetta is a short fugue, with expounding plus merely a few restatements of the topic. Fugato applies to music where merely portion of a fugue—usually an exposition—appears in a context that is non otherwise fugal, as a agency of thematic development. Well-known illustrations of fugato include transitions in the first and 4th motions of Mozart’s Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K 550 ( 1788 ) . Beethoven used the technique in the codas of Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major ( 1803 ) and Piano Concerto No. 3 in C Minor ( 1800–03 ) , the slow motion of Symphony No. 7 in A Major ( 1811–12 ) , and the “Scherzo” of Symphony No. 9. An illustration from Mendelssohn is the first motion of Symphony No. 4 in A Major ( 1833 ; Italian ) ; and Antonín Dvorák used fugato in the first motion of his Symphony No. 8 in G Major ( 1889 ) .

A notable subcategory of fugue is the type based on a cantus firmus. An illustration is the dual fugue at the beginning of Bach’s St. Matthew Passion, already mentioned, which includes widely spaced phrases of the chorale tune “O Lamm Gottes unschuldig” ( “Oh, Innocent Lamb of God” ) . Max Reger’s Variations on a Subject of Mozart for orchestra ( 1914 ) concludes with a drawn-out fugue culminating with Mozart’s original subject ( from the A Major Piano Sonata, K 331 ) superposed ; the same thought marks the reasoning fugue of Benjamin Britten’s Variations and Fugue on a Subject of Purcell ( 1946 ; Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra ) . Bach’s Musical Offer is made up of a three-part fugue, a three sonata, 10 canons, and a six-part ricercare, all on a “Royal Theme” by King Frederick the Great ; one of the canons ( “Fuga canonica in epidiapente” ) is constructed, as the rubric provinces, so that two of the voices are canonic at the fifth ( that is, a 5th apart in pitch ) throughout. Bach’s Art of the Fugue, unfinished at his decease, includes many of the particular melodic techniques mentioned above in some 16 different fugues and 4 canons, their topics all melodically derived from the topic of the first ; a 17th fugue, intended as a quadruplicate fugue, interrupt off shortly after the expounding of the 3rd topic, a four-note motor B-A-C-H ( German notation for the pitches B-flat, A, C, and B-natural ) , a fitting manner for the composer to subscribe one of his last plants.


In music, a fugue ( /fjuːɡ/ FEWG ) is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a topic ( a musical subject ) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation ( repeat at different pitches ) and which recurs often in the class of the composing. A fugue normally has three subdivisions: an expounding, a development, and a concluding entry that contains the return of the topic in the fugue 's tonic key. Some fugues have a palingenesis. In the Middle Ages, the term was widely used to denote any plants in canonic manner ; by the Renaissance, it had come to denote specifically imitative plants. Since the seventeenth century, the term fugue has described what is normally regarded as the most to the full developed process of imitative counterpoint.

Most fugues open with a short chief subject, the topic, which so sounds in turn in each voice ( after the first voice is finished saying the topic, a 2nd voice repeats the topic at a different pitch, and other voices repetition in the same manner ) ; when each voice has entered, the expounding is complete. This is frequently followed by a connecting transition, or episode, developed from antecedently heard stuff ; further `` entries '' of the topic so are heard in related keys. Episodes ( if applicable ) and entries are normally alternated until the `` concluding entry '' of the topic, by which point the music has returned to the gap key, or quinine water, which is frequently followed by shuting stuff, the finale. In this sense, a fugue is a manner of composing, instead than a fixed construction.

The signifier evolved during the eighteenth century from several earlier types of contrapuntal composings, such as imitative ricercars, capriccios, canzonas, and fantasias. The celebrated fugue composer Johann Sebastian Bach ( 1685–1750 ) shaped his ain plants after those of Johann Jakob Froberger ( 1616–1667 ) , Johann Pachelbel ( 1653–1706 ) , Girolamo Frescobaldi ( 1583–1643 ) , Dieterich Buxtehude ( c. 1637–1707 ) and others. With the diminution of sophisticated manners at the terminal of the Baroque period, the fugue 's cardinal function waned, finally giving manner as sonata signifier and the symphonic music orchestra rose to a dominant place. Nevertheless, composers continued to compose and analyze fugues for assorted intents ; they appear in the plants of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ( 1756–1791 ) and Ludwig new wave Beethoven ( 1770–1827 ) , every bit good as modern composers such as Dmitri Shostakovich ( 1906–1975 ) .


In tonic music, invertible contrapuntal lines must be written harmonizing to certain regulations because several intervallic combinations, while acceptable in one peculiar orientation, are no longer allowable when inverted. For illustration, when the note `` G '' sounds in one voice above the note `` C '' in lower voice, the interval of a fifth is formed, which is considered harmonic and wholly acceptable. When this interval is inverted ( `` C '' in the upper voice above `` G '' in the lower ) , it forms a 4th, considered a disagreement in tonic contrapuntal pattern, and requires particular intervention, or readying and declaration, if it is to be used. The countersubject, if sounding at the same clip as the reply, is transposed to the pitch of the reply. Each voice so responds with its ain topic or reply, and farther countersubjects or free counterpoint may be heard.

The first reply must happen as shortly after the initial statement of the topic as possible ; therefore the first codetta is frequently highly short, or non needed. In the above illustration this is the instance: the topic coatings on the one-fourth note ( or hook ) B-flat of the 3rd round of the 2nd saloon which harmonizes the gap G of the reply. The ulterior codettas may be well longer, and frequently serve to ( a ) develop the stuff heard so far in the subject/answer and countersubject and perchance present thoughts heard in the 2nd countersubject or free counterpoint that follows ( B ) hold, and hence heighten the impact of the reentry of the topic in another voice every bit good as modulating back to the quinine water.


Further entries of the topic follow this initial expounding, either instantly ( as for illustration in Fugue No. 1 in C major, BWV 846 of the Well-Tempered Clavier ) , or separated by episodes. Episodic stuff is ever modulatory and is normally based upon some element heard in the expounding. Each episode has the primary map of transitioning for the following entry of the topic in a new key, and may besides supply release from the stringency of signifier employed in the expounding, and middle-entries. André Gedalge states that the episode of the fugue is by and large based on a series of imitations of the topic that have been fragmented.


Further entries of the topic, or in-between entries, occur throughout the fugue. They must province the topic or reply at least one time in its entireness, and may besides be heard in combination with the countersubject ( s ) from the expounding, new countersubjects, free counterpoint, or any of these in combination. It is uncommon for the topic to come in entirely in a individual voice in the middle-entries as in the expounding ; instead, it is normally heard with at least one of the countersubjects and/or other free contrapuntal concomitants. Middle-entries tend to happen at pitches other than the initial. As shown in the typical construction above, these are frequently closely related keys such as the comparative dominant and subdominant, although the cardinal construction of fugues varies greatly. In the fugues of J. S. Bach, the first middle-entry occurs most frequently in the comparative major or child of the work 's overall key, and is followed by an entry in the dominant of the comparative major or minor when the fugue 's capable requires a tonic reply. In the fugues of earlier composers ( notably Buxtehude and Pachelbel ) , in-between entries in keys other than the tonic and dominant tend to be the exclusion, and non-modulation the norm. One of the celebrated illustrations of such non-modulating fugue occurs in Buxtehude 's Praeludium ( Fugue and Chaconne ) in C, BuxWV 137.

When there is no entryway of the topic and reply stuff, the composer can develop the topic by changing the topic. This is called an episode, frequently by inversion, although the term is sometimes used synonymously with middle-entry and may besides depict the expounding of wholly new topics, as in a dual fugue for illustration ( see below ) . In any of the entries within a fugue the topic may be altered, by inversion, retrograde ( a less common signifier where the full topic is heard back-to-front ) and decline ( the decrease of the topic 's rhythmic values by a certain factor ) , augmentation ( the addition of the topic 's rhythmic values by a certain factor ) or any combination of them.

Example and analysis

The extract below, bars 7–12 of J. S. Bach 's Fugue no. 2 in C child, BWV 847, from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1 illustrates the application of most of the features described above. The fugue is for keyboard and in three voices, with regular countersubjects. This extract opens at last entry of the expounding: the topic is sounding in the bass, the first countersubject in the soprano, while the middle-voice is saying a 2nd version of the 2nd countersubject, which concludes with the characteristic beat of the topic, and is ever used together with the first version of the 2nd countersubject. Following this an episode modulates from the quinine water to the comparative major by agencies of sequence, in the signifier of an accompanied canon at the 4th. Arrival in E-flat major is marked by a quasi perfect meter across the barline, from the last one-fourth note round of the first saloon to the first round of the 2nd saloon in the 2nd system, and the first in-between entry. Here Bach has altered countersubject 2 to suit the alteration of manner.

Double ( ternary, quadruplicate ) fugue

A dual fugue has two topics that are frequently developed at the same time ; likewise, it follows that a ternary fugue has three topics. There are two sorts of dual fugue: ( a ) a fugue in which the second topic is presented at the same time with the topic in the expounding ( e.g. as in Kyrie Eleison of Mozart 's Requiem in D child ) , and ( B ) a fugue in which the second topic has its ain expounding at some ulterior point, and the two topics are non combined until subsequently ( see for illustration, fugue no. 14 in f-sharp child from Bach 's Well-Tempered Clavier Book 2, or more famously, Bach 's `` St. Anne '' Fugue in E-flat major, BWV 552, a ternary fugue for organ. )

Permutation fugue

Permutation fugue describes a type of composing ( or technique of composing ) in which elements of fugue and rigorous canon are combined. Each voice enters in sequence with the topic, each entry jumping between tonic and dominant, and each voice, holding stated the initial topic, continues by saying two or more subjects ( or countersubjects ) , which must be conceived in right invertible counterpoint. ( In other words, the topic and countersubjects must be capable of being played both above and below all the other subjects without making any unacceptable disagreements. ) Each voice takes this form and states all the subjects/themes in the same order ( and repeats the stuff when all the subjects have been stated, sometimes after a remainder ) . There is normally really small non-structural/thematic stuff. During the class of a substitution fugue, it is rather uncommon, really, for every individual possible voice-combination ( or `` substitution '' ) of the subjects to be heard. This restriction exists in effect of sheer proportionality: the more voices in a fugue, the greater the sum of possible substitutions. In effect, composers exercise editorial judgement as to the most musical of substitutions and procedures taking thereto. One illustration of substitution fugue can be seen in the gap chorus of Bach 's oratorio, Himmelskönig, sei willkommen, BWV182.

Middle Ages and Renaissance

`` Fugue '' as a theoretical term foremost occurred in 1330 when Jacobus of Liege wrote about the fuga in his Speculum musicae. The fugue arose from the technique of `` imitation '' , where the same musical stuff was repeated get downing on a different note. Gioseffo Zarlino, a composer, writer, and theoretician in the Renaissance, was one of the first to separate between the two types of imitative counterpoint: fugues and canons ( which he called imitations ) . Originally this was to aid improvisation, but by the 1550s, it was considered a technique of composing. The Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi district attorney Palestrina ( 1525? –1594 ) wrote multitudes utilizing average counterpoint and imitation, and fugal writing became the footing for writing motets every bit good. Palestrina 's imitative motets differed from fugues in that each phrase of the text had a different topic which was introduced and worked out individually, whereas a fugue continued working with the same topic or topics throughout the full length of the piece.

Baroque epoch

It was in the Baroque period that the writing of fugues became cardinal to composing, in portion as a presentation of compositional expertness. Fugues were incorporated into a assortment of musical signifiers. Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, Girolamo Frescobaldi, Johann Jakob Froberger and Dieterich Buxtehude all wrote fugues, and George Frideric Handel included them in many of his cantatas. Keyboard suites from this clip frequently conclude with a fugal jig. Domenico Scarlatti has merely a few fugues among his principal of over 500 cembalo sonatas. The Gallic overture featured a speedy fugal subdivision after a slow debut. The 2nd motion of a sonata district attorney chiesa, as written by Arcangelo Corelli and others, was normally fugal.

The Baroque period besides saw a rise in the importance of music theory. Some fugues during the Baroque period were pieces designed to learn contrapuntal technique to pupils. The most influential text was published by Johann Joseph Fux ( 1660–1741 ) , his Gradus Ad Parnassum ( `` Stairss to Parnassus '' ) , which appeared in 1725. This work laid out the footings of `` species '' of counterpoint, and offered a series of exercisings to larn fugue writing. Fux 's work was mostly based on the pattern of Palestrina 's modal fugues. Mozart studied from this book, and it remained influential into the 19th century. Haydn, for illustration, taught counterpoint from his ain sum-up of Fux, and idea of it as the footing for formal construction.

Bach 's most celebrated fugues are those for the cembalo in The Well-Tempered Clavier, which many composers and theoreticians look at as the greatest theoretical account of fugue. The Well-Tempered Clavier comprises two volumes written in different times of Bach 's life, each consisting 24 preliminary and fugue braces, one for each major and minor key. Bach is besides known for his organ fugues, which are normally preceded by a preliminary or toccata. The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080, is a aggregation of fugues ( and four canons ) on a individual subject that is bit by bit transformed as the rhythm progresses. Bach besides wrote smaller individual fugues, and put fugal subdivisions or motions into many of his more general plant. J. S. Bach 's influence extended frontward through his boy C.P.E. Bach and through the theoretician Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg ( 1718–1795 ) whose Abhandlung von der Fuge ( `` Treatise on the fugue '' , 1753 ) was mostly based on J. S. Bach 's work.

Classical epoch

Haydn was the leader of fugal composing and technique in the Classical epoch. Haydn 's most celebrated fugues can be found in his Sun quartets ( op. 20, 1772 ) , of which three have fugal codas. This was a pattern that Haydn repeated merely one time subsequently in his quartet-writing calling, with the coda of his four op. 50 no. 4 ( 1787 ) . Some of the earliest illustrations of Haydn 's usage of counterpoint, nevertheless, are in three symphonic musics ( No. 3, No. 13, and No. 40 ) that day of the month from 1762–63. The earliest fugues, in both the symphonic musics and in the Baryton threes, exhibit the influence of Joseph Fux 's treatise on counterpoint, Gradus ad Parnassum ( 1725 ) , which Haydn studied carefully. Haydn 's 2nd fugal period occurred after he heard, and was greatly inspired by, the cantatas of Handel during his visits to London ( 1791–1793, 1794–1795 ) . Haydn so studied Handel 's techniques and integrated Handelian fugal writing into the choruses of his mature oratorios The Creation and The Seasons, every bit good as several of his ulterior symphonic musics, including No. 88, No. 95, and No. 101.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart studied counterpoint when immature with Padre Martini in Bologna. However, the major drift to fugal writing for Mozart was the influence of Baron Gottfried new wave Swieten in Vienna around 1782. Van Swieten, during diplomatic service in Berlin, had taken the chance to roll up as many manuscripts by Bach and Handel as he could, and he invited Mozart to analyze his aggregation and besides encouraged him to transcribe assorted plants for other combinations of instruments. Mozart was obviously fascinated by these plants, and wrote a set of written texts for threading three of fugues from Bach 's Well-Tempered Clavier, presenting them with preliminaries of his ain. In a missive to his sister, dated in Vienna on April 20, 1782, Mozart recognizes that he had non written anything in this signifier, but moved by the involvement of Constance he composed one piece, which is sent with the missive. He begs her sister does non allow anybody to see the fugue and manifests the hope to compose five more and so show them to Baron new wave Swieten. Sing the piece, he said `` I have taken peculiar attention to compose andante maestoso upon it, so that it should non be played fast -for if a fugue is non played easy the ear can non clearly separate the new topic as it is introduced and the consequence is missed '' . Mozart so set to writing fugues on his ain, miming the Baroque manner. These included the fugues for twine four, K. 405 ( 1782 ) and a fugue in C Minor K. 426 for two pianos ( 1783 ) . Later, Mozart incorporated fugal writing into his opera Die Zauberflöte and the coda of his Symphony No. 41.

Ludwig van Beethoven was familiar with fugal writing from childhood, as an of import portion of his preparation was playing from The Well-Tempered Clavier. During his early calling in Vienna, Beethoven attracted notice for his public presentation of these fugues. There are fugal subdivisions in Beethoven 's early piano sonatas, and fugal writing is to be found in the 2nd and 4th motions of the Eroica Symphony ( 1805 ) . Beethoven incorporated fugues in his sonatas, and reshaped the episode 's intent and compositional technique for ulterior coevalss of composers. Nevertheless, fugues did non take on a truly cardinal function in Beethoven 's work until his `` late period. '' The coda of Beethoven 's Hammerklavier Sonata contains a fugue, which was practically unperformed until the late nineteenth century, due to its enormous proficient trouble and length. The last motion of his Cello Sonata, Op. 102 No. 2 is a fugue, and there are fugal transitions in the last motions of his piano sonatas in A major Op.101 and in A level major Op.110. Harmonizing to Rosen ( 1971, p. 503 ) `` With the coda of 110, Beethoven re-conceived the significance of the most traditional elements of fugue writing. ''

Fugal transitions are besides found in the Missa Solemnis and all motions of the Ninth Symphony, except the 3rd 1. A monolithic, unresolved fugue forms the coda of his String Quartet, Op. 130 ( 1825 ) ; the latter was subsequently published individually as Op. 133, the Große Fuge ( `` Great Fugue '' ) . However, it is the fugue that opens Beethoven 's String Quartet in C crisp minor, Op. 131 that several observers regard as one of the composer 's greatest accomplishments. Joseph Kerman ( 1966, p. 330 ) calls it `` this most moving of all fugues '' . Sullivan ( 1927, p. 235 ) hears it as `` the most superhuman piece of music that Beethoven has of all time written. '' Philip Radcliffe ( 1965, p. 149 ) says `` A bare description of its formal lineation can give but small thought of the extraordinary reconditeness of this fugue. ''

twentieth century

Twentieth-century composers brought fugue back to its place of prominence, recognizing its utilizations in full instrumental plants, its importance in development and introductory subdivisions, and the developmental capablenesss of fugal composing. The 2nd motion of Ravel 's piano suite Le Tombeau de Couperin ( 1917 ) is a fugue that Roy Howat ( 200, p. 88 ) describes as holding `` a elusive flicker of wind '' . Bartók 's Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta ( 1936 ) opens with a slow fugue that Pierre Boulez ( 1986, p. 346-7 ) respects as `` surely the finest and most characteristic illustration of Bartók 's subtle style.probably the most timeless of all Bartók 's plants - a fugue that unfolds like a fan to a point of maximal strength and so stopping points, returning to the cryptic ambiance of the gap. ''

György Ligeti wrote a five-part dual fugue for his Requiem 's 2nd motion, the `` Kyrie '' , in which each portion ( S, M, A, T, B ) is subdivided in four-voice `` packages '' that make a canon. The melodious stuff in this fugue is wholly chromatic, with melismatic ( running ) parts overlaid onto jumping intervals, and usage of polyrhythm ( multiple coincident subdivisions of the step ) , film overing everything both harmonically and rhythmically so as to make an aural sum, therefore foregrounding the theoretical/aesthetic inquiry of the following subdivision as to whether fugue is a signifier or a texture.

Musical signifier or texture

The Austrian musicologist Erwin Ratz argues that the formal organisation of a fugue involves non merely the agreement of its subject and episodes, but besides its harmonic construction. In peculiar, the expounding and finale tend to stress the tonic key, whereas the episodes normally explore more distant keies. Ratz stressed, nevertheless, that this is the nucleus, underlying signifier ( `` Urform '' ) of the fugue, from which single fugues may divert. Thus it is to be noted that while certain related keys are more normally explored in fugal development, the overall construction of a fugue does non restrict its harmonic construction. For illustration, a fugue may non even research the dominant, one of the most closely related keys to the quinine water. Bach 's Fugue in B♭ major from book one of the Well Tempered Clavier explores the comparative child, the supertonic and the subdominant. This is unlike subsequently signifiers such as the sonata, which clearly prescribes which keys are explored ( typically the quinine water and dominant in an ABA signifier ) . Then, many modern fugues dispense with traditional tonic harmonic scaffolding wholly, and either utilize consecutive ( pitch-oriented ) regulations, or ( as the Kyrie/Christe in György Ligeti 's Requiem, Witold Lutosławski works ) , use panchromatic or even denser harmonic spectra.

Percepts and aesthetics

Fugue is the most complex of contrapuntal signifiers. In Ratz 's words, `` fugal technique significantly burdens the defining of musical thoughts, and it was given merely to the greatest masterminds, such as Bach and Beethoven, to take a breath life into such an unmanageable signifier and do it the carrier of the highest ideas. '' In showing Bach 's fugues as among the greatest of contrapuntal plants, Peter Kivy points out that `` counterpoint itself, since clip out of head, has been associated in the thought of instrumentalists with the profound and the serious '' and argues that `` at that place seems to be some rational justification for their making so. ''

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