Hi, I am new to C++ program, Pls help me for following probelm.I have a text file as followers, DYNAMIC ANALYSIS 次元数 ケース 内部加振 活荷重 3 1 0 0 KACC KDIS KSTS KSTN KSSR KJOT KNOD KRAT KSEC KMSS KWPR 7 7 14 14 0 14 1 0 0 1 0 FREQ GFREQ EXMAX 0.0 2.00 1.0D-6 VISCOUS BOUNDARY INFORMATION 3 2.00 77 60 11 66 0 0 加速度時刻歴出力節点番号 ( KACC=0.OR. > NTJの場合 , 削除 ) 1080 1254 1484 1549 1563 1592 1608 JOINT挙動出力要素番号 ( KJOT=0.OR. > JOINTの場合 , 削除 ) 7 8 20 22 117 118 127 128 129 130 133 134 139 140 NODES 1 -101.582 -234.742 280.000 3 2 -76.838 -234.742 280.000 3 3 -54.479 -234.742 280.000 3 4 -34.276 -234.742 280.000 3 5 -16.020 -234.742 280.000 3 6 0.476 -234.742 280.000 3 7 19.063 -234.742 280.000 3 8 37.649 -234.742 280.000 3 9 72.755 -234.742 280.000 3 10 112.781 -234.742 280.000 3 11 158.418 -234.742 280.000 3
A C++ Programming pupil asked…
Write an application named CollegeList that declares an array of four “regular” CollegeEmployees, three Faculty, and seven Students. Motivate the user – utilizing a bill of fare to stipulate which type of person’s informations will be entered ( ‘C’ , ‘F’ , or ‘S’ ) , or let the user to discontinue ( ‘Q’ ) . While the user chooses to go on ( that is, does non discontinue ) , accept informations entry for the appropriate type of Person. If the user attempts to come in informations for more than four CollegeEmployees, three Faculty, or seven Students, display an mistake message. When the user quits, display a study on the screen naming each group of Persons under the appropriate header “College Employees, ” “Faculty, ” or “Students.” If the user has non entered informations for one or more types of Persons during a session, display an appropriate message under the appropriate header.
C scheduling illustrations
C programming illustrations: These plans illustrate assorted programming elements, constructs such as utilizing operators, cringles, maps, individual and dual dimensional arrays, executing operations on strings, files, arrows etc. Browse the codification from simple c program to complicated 1s you are looking for, every one of them is provided with end product. C program download with feasible files, so that you save on your computing machine and run plans without roll uping the beginning codification. All plans are made utilizing c scheduling linguistic communication and Codeblocks, most of these will work under Dev C++ compiler besides. Download package you need to develop codifications. The first program prints `` Hello World '' on screen.
C programming tutorial
C program consists of maps and declarations or instructions given to the computing machine to execute a peculiar undertaking. The procedure of writing a program involves planing the algorithm, a flow chart may besides be drawn, and so writing the beginning codification, after developing the program you need to prove it and debug it if it does non run into the demand. To do a program you need a text editor and a compiler. You can utilize any text editor of your pick and a compiler. C compiler converts beginning codification into machine codification that consists of zero and one merely and straight executed on machine. An IDE or Integrated Development Environment provides a text editor, compiler, debugger etc. for developing plans or undertakings. Download Codeblocks IDE it provides an ideal environment for development. It can import Microsoft Visual C++ undertakings, extendible as it uses circuit boards, unfastened beginning and cross platform.
A c program must hold at least one map which is chief, map consists of declaration and statements, a statement is an look followed by a semicolon, for illustration a + B, printf ( `` c program illustrations '' ) are looks and a + B ; and printf ( `` C is an easy to larn computing machine programming linguistic communication. `` ) ; are statements. To utilize a variable we must bespeak its type whether it is an whole number, float, character. C linguistic communication has many built in informations types and we can do our ain utilizing constructions and brotherhoods. Every information type has its ain size that may depend on machine for illustration an whole number may be of 2 or 4 Bytes. Data is stored in binary signifier i.e. group of spots where each spot may be '0 ' or '1 ' . Keywords such as switch, instance, default, registry etc. are particular words with predefined significance and ca n't be used for other intents. Memory can be allocated during compile clip or at run clip utilizing malloc or calloc. C linguistic communication has many characteristics such as recursion, preprocessor, conditional digest, portability, arrows, multi weaving by utilizing external libraries, dynamic memory allotment due to which it is used for doing portable package plans and applications. Networking API 's are available utilizing which computing machine users can pass on and interact with each other, portion files etc. C standard library offers maps for mathematical operations, character strings and input/output and clip. The procedure of doing plans which is known as coding requires cognition of programming linguistic communication and logic to accomplish the coveted end product. So you should larn c programming rudimentss and get down doing plans. Learning informations constructions such as tonss, waiting lines, linked lists etc. utilizing c programming provides you a greater apprehension as you learn everything in item. General belief is to travel for other high degree linguistic communications but it 's a good thought to larn c before larning C++ or Java. C++ programming linguistic communication is object oriented and it contains all the characteristics of c linguistic communication so learning c foremost will help you to easy larn C++ and so you can travel for Java scheduling.
This book covers the C++ scheduling linguistic communication, its interactions with package design and existent life usage of the linguistic communication. It is presented in a series of chapters as an introductory prior to progress classs but can besides be used as a mention book. This is an unfastened work ; if you find any jobs with footings or constructs you can help by lending to it ; your engagement is needed and welcomed! You are besides welcomed to province any penchant, defects, vision for the existent book content, construction or other conceptual affairs ; see this Wikibook 's treatment page for the right forum for take parting.
Like most imperative linguistic communications in the ALGOL tradition, C has installations for structured scheduling and allows lexical variable range and recursion, while a inactive type system prevents many unintended operations. In C, all feasible codification is contained within subprograms, which are called `` maps '' ( although non in the rigorous sense of functional scheduling ) . Function parametric quantities are ever passed by value. Pass-by-reference is simulated in C by explicitly go throughing arrow values. C program beginning text is free-format, utilizing the semicolon as a statement eradicator and curly braces for grouping blocks of statements.
Relationss to other linguistic communications
The beginning of C is closely tied to the development of the Unix operating system, originally implemented in assembly linguistic communication on a PDP-7 by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson, integrating several thoughts from co-workers. Finally, they decided to port the operating system to a PDP-11. The original PDP-11 version of Unix was developed in assembly linguistic communication. The developers were sing rewriting the system utilizing the B linguistic communication, Thompson 's simplified version of BCPL. However B 's inability to take advantage of some of the PDP-11 's characteristics, notably byte addressability, led to C. The name of C was chosen merely as the following after B.
As an imperative linguistic communication, C uses statements to stipulate actions. The most common statement is an look statement, dwelling of an look to be evaluated, followed by a semicolon ; as a side consequence of the rating, maps may be called and variables may be assigned new values. To modify the normal consecutive executing of statements, C provides several control-flow statements identified by reserved keywords. Structured scheduling is supported by if ( -else ) conditional executing and by do-while, while, and for iterative executing ( looping ) . The for statement has separate low-level formatting, proving, and reinitialization looks, any or all of which can be omitted. interruption and go on can be used to go forth the innermost enveloping loop statement or skip to its reinitialization. There is besides a non-structured goto statement which branches straight to the designated label within the map. exchange selects a instance to be executed based on the value of an whole number look.
Expressions can utilize a assortment of built-in operators and may incorporate map calls. The order in which statements to maps and operands to most operators are evaluated is unspecified. The ratings may even be interleaved. However, all side effects ( including storage to variables ) will happen before the following `` sequence point '' ; sequence points include the terminal of each look statement, and the entry to and return from each map call. Sequence points besides occur during rating of looks incorporating certain operators ( & & , || , ? : and the comma operator ) . This permits a high grade of object codification optimisation by the compiler, but requires C coders to take more attention to obtain dependable consequences than is needed for other scheduling linguistic communications.
Most of the late reserved words begin with an underline followed by a capital missive, because identifiers of that signifier were antecedently reserved by the C criterion for usage merely by executions. Since bing program beginning codification should non hold been utilizing these identifiers, it would non be affected when C executions started back uping these extensions to the scheduling linguistic communication. Some standard headings do specify more convenient equivalent word for underscored identifiers. The linguistic communication antecedently included a reserved word called entry, but this was rarely implemented, and has now been removed as a reserved word.
C uses the operator = ( used in mathematics to show equality ) to bespeak assignment, following the case in point of Fortran and PL/I, but unlike ALGOL and its derived functions. C uses the operator == to prove for equality. The similarity between these two operators ( assignment and equality ) may ensue in the inadvertent usage of one in topographic point of the other, and in many instances, the error does non bring forth an mistake message ( although some compilers produce warnings ) . For illustration, the conditional look if ( a==b+1 ) might erroneously be written as if ( a=b+1 ) , which will be evaluated as true if a is non zero after the assignment.
`` Hello, universe '' illustration
The following line calls ( diverts executing to ) a map named printf, which in this instance is supplied from a system library. In this call, the printf map is passed ( provided with ) a individual statement, the reference of the first character in the twine actual `` hullo, world\n '' . The string misprint is an nameless array with elements of type char, set up automatically by the compiler with a concluding 0-valued character to tag the terminal of the array ( printf needs to cognize this ) . The \n is an flight sequence that C translates to a newline character, which on end product signifies the terminal of the current line. The return value of the printf map is of type int, but it is mutely discarded since it is non used. ( A more careful program might prove the return value to find whether or non the printf map succeeded. ) The semicolon ; terminates the statement.
C supports the usage of arrows, a type of mention that records the reference or location of an object or map in memory. Arrows can be dereferenced to entree informations stored at the reference pointed to, or to raise a pointed-to map. Arrows can be manipulated utilizing assignment or arrow arithmetic. The run-time representation of a arrow value is typically a natural memory reference ( possibly augmented by an offset-within-word field ) , but since a arrow 's type includes the type of the thing pointed to, looks including arrows can be type-checked at compile clip. Pointer arithmetic is automatically scaled by the size of the pointed-to informations type. Arrows are used for many intents in C. Text strings are normally manipulated utilizing arrows into arrays of characters. Dynamic memory allotment is performed utilizing arrows. Many informations types, such as trees, are normally implemented as dynamically allocated struct objects linked together utilizing arrows. Arrows to maps are utile for go throughing maps as statements to higher-order maps ( such as qsort or bsearch ) or as recalls to be invoked by event animal trainers.
A void arrow value explicitly points to no valid location. Dereferencing a void arrow value is vague, frequently ensuing in a cleavage mistake. Null arrow values are utile for bespeaking particular instances such as no `` following '' arrow in the concluding node of a linked list, or as an mistake indicant from maps returning arrows. In appropriate contexts in beginning codification, such as for delegating to a arrow variable, a void arrow invariable can be written as 0, with or without expressed casting to a arrow type, or as the NULL macro defined by several standard headings. In conditional contexts, void arrow values evaluate to false, while all other arrow values evaluate to true.
Careless usage of arrows is potentially unsafe. Because they are typically unbridled, a arrow variable can be made to indicate to any arbitrary location, which can do unwanted effects. Although decently used arrows point to safe topographic points, they can be made to indicate to insecure topographic points by utilizing invalid arrow arithmetic ; the objects they point to may go on to be used after deallocation ( swinging arrows ) ; they may be used without holding been initialized ( wild arrows ) ; or they may be straight assigned an insecure value utilizing a dramatis personae, brotherhood, or through another corrupt arrow. In general, C is permissive in leting use of and transition between arrow types, although compilers typically provide options for assorted degrees of checking. Some other scheduling linguistic communications address these jobs by utilizing more restrictive mention types.
The size of an component can be determined by using the operator sizeof to any dereferenced component of ten, as in n = sizeof *x or n = sizeof ten, and the figure of elements in a declared array A can be determined as sizeof A / sizeof A. The latter merely applies to range names: variables declared with inferiors ( int A ) . Due to the semantics of C, it is non possible to find the full size of arrays through arrows to arrays or those created by dynamic allotment ( malloc ) ; codification such as sizeof arr / sizeof arr ( where arr designates a arrow ) will non work since the compiler assumes the size of the arrow itself is being requested. Since array name statements to sizeof are non converted to arrows, they do non exhibit such ambiguity. However, arrays created by dynamic allotment are accessed by arrows instead than true array variables, so they suffer from the same sizeof issues as array arrows.
Therefore, despite this evident equality between array and arrow variables, there is still a differentiation to be made between them. Even though the name of an array is, in most look contexts, converted into a arrow ( to its first component ) , this arrow does non itself occupy any storage ; the array name is non an l-value, and its reference is a changeless, unlike a arrow variable. Consequently, what an array `` points to '' can non be changed, and it is impossible to delegate a new reference to an array name. Array contents may be copied, nevertheless, by utilizing the memcpy map, or by accessing the single elements.
These three attacks are appropriate in different state of affairss and have assorted tradeoffs. For illustration, inactive memory allotment has small allotment operating expense, automatic allotment may affect somewhat more overhead, and dynamic memory allotment can potentially hold a great trade of operating expense for both allotment and deallocation. The relentless nature of inactive objects is utile for keeping province information across map calls, automatic allotment is easy to utilize but stack infinite is typically much more limited and transient than either inactive memory or heap infinite, and dynamic memory allotment allows convenient allotment of objects whose size is known merely at run-time. Most Hundred plans make extended usage of all three.
Where possible, automatic or inactive allotment is normally simplest because the storage is managed by the compiler, liberating the coder of the potentially erring job of manually apportioning and let go ofing storage. However, many informations constructions can alter in size at runtime, and since inactive allotments ( and automatic allotments before C99 ) must hold a fixed size at compile-time, there are many state of affairss in which dynamic allotment is necessary. Prior to the C99 criterion, variable-sized arrays were a common illustration of this. ( See the article on malloc for an illustration of dynamically allocated arrays. ) Unlike automatic allotment, which can neglect at run clip with uncontrolled effects, the dynamic allotment maps return an indicant ( in the signifier of a void arrow value ) when the needed storage can non be allocated. ( Inactive allotment that is excessively big is normally detected by the linker or stevedore, before the program can even get down executing. )
Unless otherwise specified, inactive objects contain zero or void arrow values upon program startup. Automatically and dynamically allocated objects are initialized merely if an initial value is explicitly specified ; otherwise they ab initio have undetermined values ( typically, whatever bit pattern happens to be present in the storage, which might non even stand for a valid value for that type ) . If the program efforts to entree an uninitialized value, the consequences are vague. Many modern compilers try to observe and warn about this job, but both false positives and false negatives can happen.
Another issue is that heap memory allotment has to be synchronized with its existent use in any program in order for it to be reused every bit much as possible. For illustration, if the lone arrow to a heap memory allotment goes out of range or has its value overwritten before free ( ) is called, so that memory can non be recovered for subsequently reuse and is basically lost to the program, a phenomenon known as a memory leak. Conversely, it is possible for memory to be freed but continue to be referenced, taking to unpredictable consequences. Typically, the symptoms will look in a part of the program far removed from the existent mistake, doing it hard to track down the job. ( Such issues are ameliorated in linguistic communications with automatic refuse aggregation. )
The C scheduling linguistic communication uses libraries as its primary method of extension. In C, a library is a set of maps contained within a individual `` archive '' file. Each library typically has a heading file, which contains the paradigms of the maps contained within the library that may be used by a program, and declarations of particular informations types and macro symbols used with these maps. In order for a program to utilize a library, it must include the library 's heading file, and the library must be linked with the program, which in many instances requires compiler flags ( e.g. , -lm, stenography for `` link the math library '' ) .
C is widely used for `` system scheduling '' , including implementing runing systems and embedded system applications, because C codification, when written for portability, can be used for most intents, yet when needed, system-specific codification can be used to entree specific hardware references and to execute type punning to fit externally imposed interface demands, with a low run-time demand on system resources. C can besides be used for website scheduling utilizing CGI as a `` gateway '' for information between the Web application, the waiter, and the browser. C is frequently chosen over taken linguistic communications because of its velocity, stableness, and near-universal handiness.
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